Vitamins and Minerals

Questions To Ask Before Taking Vitamin and Mineral Supplements

USDA. NAL. Food and Nutrition Information Center.

Here are some questions to ask before deciding on vitamin and mineral supplementation.


Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

DHHS. NIH. Office of Dietary Supplements.

Fact sheets provide responsible information about the role of vitamins and minerals in health and disease.


Vitamin and Mineral Supplements - the AHA Position

American Heart Association.

Vitamin and Mineral Supplements: AHA Scientific Position


USDA Nutrient Lists - Reports by Single Nutrients, Release 25

USDA. ARS. Nutrient Data Laboratory.

USDA Nutrient Lists -Reports by Single Nutrients, Release 25
These lists, formerly available as PDF files, are now integrated into the online search program. You can select up to three nutrients, sorted either by food description or in descending order by nutrient content in terms of common household measures. You can also limit the search to one several, or all food groups.


Linus Pauling Institute logo Micronutrient Information Center

Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute.

Provides scientifically accurate information regarding the roles of vitamins, minerals, dietary phytochemicals (plant chemicals that may affect health) and other nutrients in preventing disease and promoting health.


Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997)

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.


Dietary Reference Intakes: RDA and AI for Vitamins and Elements (PDF | 28 KB)

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Dietary Reference Intakes: RDA and AI for Vitamins and Elements
DRI tables for recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and adequate intakes (AI) of vitamins and elements, including the 2010 updated recommendations for calcium and vitamin D.


Dietary Reference Intakes: Electrolytes and Water

NAS. IOM. Food and Nutrition Board.

DRI table for sodium, chloride, potassium, inorganic sulfate and water.


Dietary Reference Intakes: UL for Vitamins and Elements (PDF | 19 KB)

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Dietary Reference Intakes: UL for Vitamins and Elements
DRI table for tolerable upper intake levels (UL) of vitamins and elements, including the 2010 updated recommendations for calcium and vitamin D.


MedlinePlus: Antioxidants

DHHS. NIH. National Library of Medicine.


MedlinePlus: Minerals

DHHS. NIH. National Library of Medicine.


MedlinePlus: Vitamins

DHHS. NIH. National Library of Medicine.


Spin the Bottle: How to Pick a Multivitamin (PDF | 337 KB)

Center for Science in the Public Interest.


USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods

USDA. ARS. Nutrient Data Laboratory; University of North Carolina, Department of Nutrition.

USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods - Release 2 (2008)


USDA National Fluoride Database of Selected Beverages and Foods

USDA. ARS. Nutrient Data Laboratory.

USDA National Fluoride Database of Selected Beverages and Foods - Release 2 (2005)


Micronutrient Initiative

The Micronutrient Initiative.

A Canada- based international not-for-profit organization dedicated to eliminating vitamin and mineral deficiencies worldwide.


Science Trace Bullets Online: Vitamins and Minerals

Library of Congress. Science, Technology and Business Division.

Contains research guides to locate information on vitamins and minerals; includes lists of resources and strategies for finding more.


Vitamin Deficiency, Dependency, And Toxicity (Chapter 4)

Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy.


Vitamins and Minerals

United Kingdom Food Standards Agency. Eatwell.