Title: Nitric oxide as a biomarker of intracellular Salmonella viability and identification of the bacteriostatic activity of protein kinase A inhibitor H-89
Authors: He LH, Genovese KJ, Swaggerty CL, Nisbet DJ, Kogut MH
Journal: PLoS One
Accepted date: 2013 Feb 7
Interpretive summary: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the most common Salmonella species in poultry and is often associated with human salmonellosis. In light of the emergence of increased resistance to commonly used antibiotics in Salmonella, development of new antibacterial agents is urgently needed. Macrophage cells are one of the white blood cells that can produce chemicals to kill bacteria. However, S. Enteritidis is able to inhibit the production of antibacterial substances, such as nitric oxide (NO), and survives within the chicken macrophage cells. In this study, we have developed a screening tool using NO as a biomarker to identify chemicals with antibacterial activity against Salmonella inside the chicken macrophage cells. Using this tool, we have tested a group of pharmaceutical compounds and found that one of the compounds, H-89, was able to kill S. Enteritidis within the macrophage cells and reversed the inhibition on NO production. Additionally, H-89 was found to inhibit the bacterial growth in the culture medium. This information is important to the pharmaceutical and poultry industries in the United States because it offers a potential new tool to control Salmonella in poultry.
Publication date: 2013 Mar 15