Food Safety Research Information Office
Title:Animal and Manure Management for Sustainable Production and Reduced Environmental Impact
Objective:The goal of the project is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the interrelationships between nutrient inputs in livestock production systems, as derived from agricultural and industrial byproducts, and the impact on nutrient utilization, animal health, gastrointestinal ecology, and pathogen shedding in an effort to minimize environmental impact, accomplished through the four interlinked objectives as outlined and depicted below:

1. Manipulate swine dietary ingredients to improve nutrient utilization and reduce nutrient excretion and the emission of gasses into the environment.

2. Quantify and modify swine gastrointestinal microflora to improve nutrient utilization and reduce the emission of gasses into the environment.

3. Quantify the impact of swine dietary regimens on nutrient metabolism and immune function of the gastrointestinal tract and the whole animal in order to assess the potential tradeoffs between environmental concerns and production.

4. Exploit genetically-mediated mechanisms involved in Salmonella colonization of the swine gastrointestinal tract to reduce subsequent shedding into manure.

More Info:
Approach: The impact of dietary ingredients on nutrient utilization in the pig and subsequent nutrient excretion and emission of gasses into the environment will be assessed through altering the source and level of dietary protein and carbohydrate. The protein level will be adjusted relative to the level of soybean meal and amino acid supplementation utilized in diet formulation, while the protein source factor will be accomplished by replacing soybean meal with either canola meal, corn gluten meal, or poultry meal. The source and level of complex carbohydrate will be accomplished by utilizing barley, beet pulp, distillers dried grains with solubles, soybean hulls, and wheat bran as a partial replacement of soybean meal. Nutrient retention, excretion, and gas emissions will be accomplished using animal metabolism trials and the employment of a manure storage system currently in place at the lab. Microbial ecology of the large intestine (via fresh feces) and manure, as affected by the source and level of protein and carbohydrate, will be assessed by classical and molecular methods currently employed at the Unit, using the same pigs and diets as described above. The impact of dietary regimens on nutrient metabolism and immune function will be accomplished by utilizing similarly formulated diets as above, but on a separate group of pigs, with assessment of systemic and intestinal immune system function using techniques currently being utilized within the Unit. Lastly, reduction of Salmonella colonization of the swine gastrointestinal tract for subsequent reduction of shedding into the environment will be accomplished by administration of a chemical compound to disrupt pathogen sensing, vaccination using an attenuated S. Typhimurium strain, and manipulation of crude protein levels in the diet (as described above).
Funding Source:United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
Type:Appropriated
Start Date:2010
End Date:2015
Project Number:3625-31000-004-00
Accession Number:420301
Institutions:USDA/ARS - Midwest Area
Investigators:Bearson, Bradley
Hatfield, Jerry
Kerr, Brian
Ziemer, Cherie
Project Reports:2011 Annual Report
Published Journal
Articles USDA
ARS (NP 108):
Influence of thermally oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs
Liu P, Chen C, Kerr BJ, Weber TE, Johnston LJ, Shurson GC.
J Anim Sci. 2014 Jul;92(7):2960-70.
Influence of thermally oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on energy and nutrient digestibility in young pigs
Liu P, Kerr BJ, Chen C, Weber TE, Johnston LJ, Shurson GC.
J Anim Sci. 2014 Jul;92(7):2980-6.
Methods to create thermally oxidized lipids and comparison of analytical procedures to characterize peroxidation
Liu P, Kerr BJ, Chen C, Weber TE, Johnston LJ, Shurson GC.
J Anim Sci. 2014 Jul;92(7):2950-9.
Influence of thermally oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on intestinal barrier function and immune variables in young pigs
Liu P, Kerr BJ, Weber TE, Chen C, Johnston LJ, Shurson GC.
J Anim Sci. 2014 Jul;92(7):2971-9.
Validation of prediction equations for apparent metabolizable energy of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks
Meloche KJ, Kerr BJ, Billor N, Shurson GC, Dozier WA 3rd.
Poult Sci. 2014 Jun;93(6):1428-39.
Bacteroides isolated from four mammalian hosts lack host-specific 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and carbon and nitrogen utilization patterns
Atherly T1, Ziemer CJ.
Microbiologyopen. 2014 Apr;3(2):225-38.
Improved hybrid genome assemblies of two strains of Bacteroides xylanisolvens, SD_CC_1b and SD_CC_2a, obtained using Illumina and 454 sequencing technologies
Ramaraj T, Sundararajan A, Schilkey FD, DelVecchio VG, Donlon M, Ziemer C, Mudge J.
Genome Announc. 2014 Mar;2(2):e00237-14.
Newly cultured bacteria with broad diversity isolated from eight-week continuous culture enrichments of cow feces on complex polysaccharides
Ziemer CJ.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014 Jan;80(2):574-85.
Effects of feeding diets containing highly peroxidized distillers dried grains with solubles and increasing vitamin E levels to wean-finish pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat composition
Song R, Chen C, Johnston LJ, Kerr BJ, Weber TE, Shurson GC.
J Anim Sci. 2014 Jan;92(1):198-210.
The agricultural antibiotic carbadox induces phage-mediated gene transfer in Salmonella
Bearson BL, Allen HK, Brunelle BW, Lee IS, Casjens SR, Stanton TB.
Front Microbiol. 2014;5:52.
Apparent metabolizable energy and prediction equations for reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks from 10 to 18 days of age
Meloche KJ, Kerr BJ, Shurson GC, Dozier WA 3rd.
Poult Sci. 2013 Dec;92(12):3176-83.
Effect of insoluble-low fermentable fiber from corn-ethanol distillation origin on energy, fiber, and amino acid digestibility, hindgut degradability of fiber, and growth performance of pigs
Gutierrez NA, Kerr BJ, Patience JF.
J Anim Sci. 2013 Nov;91(11):5314-25.
Supplemental lysine sulfate does not negatively affect the performance of broiler chicks fed dietary sulfur from multiple dietary and water sources
Bobeck EA, Payne RL, Kerr BJ, Persia ME.
J Appl Poult Res. 2013 Sep;22(3):461-8.
Broad diversity and newly cultured bacterial isolates from enrichment of pig feces on complex polysaccharides
Ziemer CJ.
Microb Ecol. 2013 Aug;66(2):448-61.
Effects of reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles composition on digestible and metabolizable energy value and prediction in growing pigs
Kerr BJ, Dozier WA 3rd, Shurson GC.
J Anim Sci. 2013 Jul;91(7):3231-43.
High sulfur content in corn dried distillers grains with solubles protects against oxidized lipids by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs
Song R, Chen C, Wang L, Johnston LJ, Kerr BJ, Weber TE, Shurson GC.
J Anim Sci. 2013 Jun;91(6):2715-28.
Strategies to improve fiber utilization in swine
Kerr BJ, Shurson GC.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol. 2013 Mar 15;4(1):11.
Effects of drying methods on nitrogen and energy concentrations in pig feces and urine, and poultry excreta
Jacobs BM, Patience JF, Dozier WA 3rd, Stalder KJ, Kerr BJ.
J Anim Sc. 2011 Aug;89(8):2624-30.
Non-Journal Publications:
A live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine provides cross-protection against Salmonella serovars to reduce disease severity and pathogen transmission - (Abstract Only)
Bearson, B.L., Bearson, S.M., Lee, I.S., Kich, J. 2013. A live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine provides cross-protection against Salmonella serovars to reduce disease severity and pathogen transmission. Final Program and Abstracts of the 4th ASM Conference on Salmaonella. p. 50.
Isolation of QseC-regulated genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by transposon mutgagenesis - (Abstract Only)
Lee, I.S., Bearson, B.L., Bearson, S.M. 2013. Isolation of QseC-regulated genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by transposon mutgagenesis. Abstracts of the 2013 Molecular Genetics of Bacteria and Phages Meeting, August 6-10, 2013, Madison, Wisconsin. p. 167.
The agricultural antibiotic carbadox induces generalized transducing phage in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 - (Abstract Only)
Bearson, B.L., Brunelle, B.W., Allen, H.K., Bayles, D.O., Stanton, T.B. 2013. The agricultural antibiotic carbadox induces generalized transducing phage in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104. Abstracts of the 2013 Molecular Genetics of Bacteria and Phages Meeting, August 6-10, 2013, Madison, Wisconsin. p. 95.
Bacteroides isolated from four mammalian hosts lack host specific patterns in carbon and nitrogen metabolism - (Abstract Only)
Atherly, T.A., Ziemer, C.J. 2013. Bacteroides isolated from four mammalian hosts lack host specific patterns in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. In: Proceedings of the 2013 Congress on Gastrointestinal Function.
Remarkable similarity among bacteria isolated from four hosts after eight-week enrichments of feces with cellulose and xylan/pectin - (Abstract Only)
Ziemer, C.J. 2013. Remarkable similarity among bacteria isolated from four hosts after eight-week enrichments of feces with cellulose and xylan/pectin. In: Proceedings of the 2013 Congress on Gastrointestinal Function.
The agricultural antibiotic carbadox induces prophage and antibiotic resistance gene transfer in multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 - (Abstract Only)
Bearson, B.L., Brunelle, B.W., Allen, H.K., Bayles, D.O., Stanton, T.B. 2013. The agricultural antibiotic carbadox induces prophage and antibiotic resistance gene transfer in multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104. Abstracts of the 113th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, May 18-21, 2013, Denver, Colorado. Paper No. #M-1103.
Amino acid nutrition and feed efficiency - (Book / Chapter)
De Lange, C., Levesque, C., Kerr, B.J. 2013. Amino acid nutrition and feed efficiency. In Patience, J.F., editor. Feed Efficiency. The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers. p. 81-100.
Fiber utilization and enzymes in swine diets - (Proceedings)
Kerr, B.J., Shurson, G.C. 2012. Fiber utilization and enzymes in swine diets. Proceedings of GenTech Industries Group Conference. 95-112.
Lipids, fatty acids, and more - (Proceedings)
Kerr, B.J., Shurson, G.C. 2012. Lipids, fatty acids, and more. Proceedings of Arkansas Nutrition Conference. p. 25-36.
Food Safety Categories:Food and Feed Composition and Characteristics
On-Farm Food Safety
Farm-to-Table Categories:On-farm food production
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