Food Safety Research Information Office
Title:Animal and Manure Management for Sustainable Production and Reduced Environmental Impact
Objective:The goal of the project is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the interrelationships between nutrient inputs in livestock production systems, as derived from agricultural and industrial byproducts, and the impact on nutrient utilization, animal health, gastrointestinal ecology, and pathogen shedding in an effort to minimize environmental impact, accomplished through the four interlinked objectives as outlined and depicted below:

1. Manipulate swine dietary ingredients to improve nutrient utilization and reduce nutrient excretion and the emission of gasses into the environment.

2. Quantify and modify swine gastrointestinal microflora to improve nutrient utilization and reduce the emission of gasses into the environment.

3. Quantify the impact of swine dietary regimens on nutrient metabolism and immune function of the gastrointestinal tract and the whole animal in order to assess the potential tradeoffs between environmental concerns and production.

4. Exploit genetically-mediated mechanisms involved in Salmonella colonization of the swine gastrointestinal tract to reduce subsequent shedding into manure.

More Info:
Approach: The impact of dietary ingredients on nutrient utilization in the pig and subsequent nutrient excretion and emission of gasses into the environment will be assessed through altering the source and level of dietary protein and carbohydrate. The protein level will be adjusted relative to the level of soybean meal and amino acid supplementation utilized in diet formulation, while the protein source factor will be accomplished by replacing soybean meal with either canola meal, corn gluten meal, or poultry meal. The source and level of complex carbohydrate will be accomplished by utilizing barley, beet pulp, distillers dried grains with solubles, soybean hulls, and wheat bran as a partial replacement of soybean meal. Nutrient retention, excretion, and gas emissions will be accomplished using animal metabolism trials and the employment of a manure storage system currently in place at the lab. Microbial ecology of the large intestine (via fresh feces) and manure, as affected by the source and level of protein and carbohydrate, will be assessed by classical and molecular methods currently employed at the Unit, using the same pigs and diets as described above. The impact of dietary regimens on nutrient metabolism and immune function will be accomplished by utilizing similarly formulated diets as above, but on a separate group of pigs, with assessment of systemic and intestinal immune system function using techniques currently being utilized within the Unit. Lastly, reduction of Salmonella colonization of the swine gastrointestinal tract for subsequent reduction of shedding into the environment will be accomplished by administration of a chemical compound to disrupt pathogen sensing, vaccination using an attenuated S. Typhimurium strain, and manipulation of crude protein levels in the diet (as described above).
Funding Source:United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
Type:Appropriated
Start Date:2010
End Date:2015
Project Number:3625-31000-004-00
Accession Number:420301
Institutions:USDA/ARS - Midwest Area
Investigators:Bearson, Bradley
Hatfield, Jerry
Kerr, Brian
Ziemer, Cherie
Project Reports:2011 Annual Report
Published Journal
Articles USDA
ARS (NP 108):
Non-Journal Publications:
Isolation of QseC-regulated genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by transposon mutgagenesis - (Abstract Only)
Lee, I.S., Bearson, B.L., Bearson, S.M. 2013. Isolation of QseC-regulated genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by transposon mutgagenesis. Abstracts of the 2013 Molecular Genetics of Bacteria and Phages Meeting, August 6-10, 2013, Madison, Wisconsin. p. 167.
The agricultural antibiotic carbadox induces generalized transducing phage in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 - (Abstract Only)
Bearson, B.L., Brunelle, B.W., Allen, H.K., Bayles, D.O., Stanton, T.B. 2013. The agricultural antibiotic carbadox induces generalized transducing phage in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104. Abstracts of the 2013 Molecular Genetics of Bacteria and Phages Meeting, August 6-10, 2013, Madison, Wisconsin. p. 95.
Bacteroides isolated from four mammalian hosts lack host specific patterns in carbon and nitrogen metabolism - (Abstract Only)
Atherly, T.A., Ziemer, C.J. 2013. Bacteroides isolated from four mammalian hosts lack host specific patterns in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. In: Proceedings of the 2013 Congress on Gastrointestinal Function.
Remarkable similarity among bacteria isolated from four hosts after eight-week enrichments of feces with cellulose and xylan/pectin - (Abstract Only)
Ziemer, C.J. 2013. Remarkable similarity among bacteria isolated from four hosts after eight-week enrichments of feces with cellulose and xylan/pectin. In: Proceedings of the 2013 Congress on Gastrointestinal Function.
The agricultural antibiotic carbadox induces prophage and antibiotic resistance gene transfer in multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 - (Abstract Only)
Bearson, B.L., Brunelle, B.W., Allen, H.K., Bayles, D.O., Stanton, T.B. 2013. The agricultural antibiotic carbadox induces prophage and antibiotic resistance gene transfer in multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104. Abstracts of the 113th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, May 18-21, 2013, Denver, Colorado. Paper No. #M-1103.
Amino acid nutrition and feed efficiency - (Book / Chapter)
De Lange, C., Levesque, C., Kerr, B.J. 2013. Amino acid nutrition and feed efficiency. In Patience, J.F., editor. Feed Efficiency. The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers. p. 81-100.
Fiber utilization and enzymes in swine diets - (Proceedings)
Kerr, B.J., Shurson, G.C. 2012. Fiber utilization and enzymes in swine diets. Proceedings of GenTech Industries Group Conference. 95-112.
Lipids, fatty acids, and more - (Proceedings)
Kerr, B.J., Shurson, G.C. 2012. Lipids, fatty acids, and more. Proceedings of Arkansas Nutrition Conference. p. 25-36.
Food Safety Categories:Food and Feed Composition and Characteristics
On-Farm Food Safety
Farm-to-Table Categories:On-farm food production
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