Food Safety Research Information Office
Title:Zoonotic Parasites Affecting Food Safety and Public Health
Objective:

Improve food safety by reducing contamination of fresh produce by improving detection and determining the sources and reducing transmission of protozoan parasites infectious for humans.

Objective 1: Improve detection methods for Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and other zoonotic parasites. a) Develop new immunofluorescence and aptamer technologies applicable to detection of zoonotic parasites on fresh fruits and vegetables and in irrigation water and produce washwater. b) Determine effective washing agents and methods for recovering contaminating parasites from the surface of fresh produce. c) Develop a protocol using amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis (AFLP) to simultaneously detect multiple infectious organisms thereby reducing the need for multiple testing.

Objective 2: Develop prevention and treatment strategies against zoonotic cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. a) Test anti-viral drugs against virus found inside Cryptosporidium parvum stages to inhibit virus and parasite replication. b)Test probiotics in mouse models for prevention of cryptosporidiosis.

Objective 3: Elucidate the epidemiology of zoonotic Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Blastocystis and Microsporidia by identifying unique and emerging genotypes using molecular tools. a) Determine subtypes of Blastocystis and Microsporidia found in food animals that match pathogenic subtypes in humans. b) Identify emerging zoonotic genotypes and subgenotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia with potential to be foodborne pathogens from samples of irrigation water and from manure spread on crop fields.

More Info:

Approach: To improve detection methods for zoonotic parasites, studies will develop new immunofluorescence and aptamer technologies applicable to detection of the zoonotic parasites Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts on fresh fruits and vegetables and in irrigation water and produce washwater by tagging pathogen-specific antibodies/aptamers with fluorophores with minimal interference from autofluorescing vegetal tissue and other waterborne particles to increase sensitivity, and thereby detection of the parasite eluted from or located on fresh produce.

Determine the most effective washing agents and methods for recovering contaminating parasites from the surface of fresh produce including tetrasodium pyrophosphate, 1M Hepes at pH 5.5, 1 M sodium bicarbonate at pH 6.0, 1 M glycine at pH5.5, and 1% lauryl sulfate, and then combine those most effective reagents and test their efficacy.

Develop a protocol using amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis (AFLP) to simultaneously detect multiple contamination with Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis, Blastocystis, and E. bieneusi.

Test antiviral drug inhibitors of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) against virus found inside Cryptosporidium parvum stages to inhibit virus and parasite replication using in vitro cell culture methodology.

Test probiotics Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) in mouse models for prevention of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis.

Determine subtypes of Blastocystis and Microsporidia found in food animals that match pathogenic subtypes in humans using DNA samples now held frozen in our inventory from dairy and beef cattle (pre- and post-weaned calves, heifers, and adults) from more than 20 states of the U.S., from sheep (lambs and ewes), as well as from pigs, horses, dogs, cats and alpacas.

Funding Source:United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
Type:Appropriated
Start Date:2010
End Date:2015
Project Number:1245-32000-089-00
Accession Number:421063
Institutions:USDA/ARS - Beltsville Area Research Center
Investigators:Fayer, Ronald
Jenkins, Mark
Santin-Duran, Monica
Project Reports:2013 Annual Report
2012 Annual Report
2011 Annual Report
Published Journal
Articles USDA
ARS (NP 108):
Cryptosporidium parvum GP60 subtypes in dairy cattle from Buenos Aires, Argentina
Del Coco VF, Cordoba MA, Bilbao G, de Almeida Castro AP, Basualdo JA, Fayer R, Santín M.
Res Vet Sci. 2014 Apr;96(2):311-4.
Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine
Fayer R, Elsasser T, Gould R, Solano G, Urban J Jr, Santin M.
Parasitol Res. 2014 Apr;113(4):1465-72.
Subtyping Cryptosporidium ubiquitum,a zoonotic pathogen emerging in humans
Li N, Xiao L, Alderisio K, Elwin K, Cebelinski E, Chalmers R, Santin M, Fayer R, Kvac M, Ryan U, Sak B, Stanko M, Guo Y, Wang L, Zhang L, Cai J, Roellig D, Feng Y.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;20(2):217-24.
First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from dairy cattle in Argentina
Del Coco VF, Cordoba MA, Bilbao G, del Almeida Castro P, Basualdo JA, Santin M.
Vet Parasitol. 2014 Jan 17;199(1-2):112-5.
Impacts of globalisation on foodborne parasites
Robertson LJ, Sprong H, Ortega YR, van der Giessen JW, Fayer R.
Trends Parasitol. 2014 Jan;30(1):37-52.
A large scale molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in horses
Santin M, Cortes Vecino J, Fayer R .
Vet Parasitol. 2013 Sep 1;196(1):31-6.
A large scale molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in horses from Colombia
Santín M, Cortés Vecino JA, Fayer R.
Vet Parasitol. 2013 Sep 1;196(1):31-6.
Adhesive-tape recovery combined with molecular and microscopic testing for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts on experimentally contaminated fresh produce and a food preparation surface
Fayer R, Santin M, Macarisin D, Bauchan G.
Parasitol Res. 2013 Apr;112(4):1567-74.
Clinical and subclinical infections with Cryptosporidium in animals
Santín M.
N Z Vet J. 2013 Jan;61(1):1-10.
Experimental infection with Cryptosporidium parvum IIaA21G1R1 subtype in immunosuppressed mice
Del Coco VF, Córdoba MA, Sidoti A, Santín M, Drut R, Basualdo JA.
Vet Parasitol. 2012 Dec 21;190(3):411-7.
Analysis of giardin expression during encystation of Giardia lamblia
Jenkins MC, O'Brien CN, Macarisin D, Miska K, Fetterer R, Fayer R.
J Parasitol. 2012 Dec;98(6):1266-70.
Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in lambs from Spain reveals a high heterogeneity
Gómez-Muñoz MT, Cámara-Badenes C, Martínez-Herrero Mdel C, Dea-Ayuela MA, Pérez-Gracia MT, Fernández-Barredo S, Santín M, Fayer R.
Res Vet Sci. 2012 Oct;93(2):836-42.
Detection of concurrent infection of dairy cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods
Fayer R, Santin M, Macarisin D.
Parasitol Res. 2012 Sep;111(3):1349-55.
A new and highly divergent Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype isolated from a renal transplant recipient
Pomares C, Santín M, Miegeville M, Espern A, Albano L, Marty P, Morio F.
J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Jun;50(6):2176-8.
CD40 agonist antibody mediated improvement of chronic Cryptosporidium infection in patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome
Fan X, Upadhyaya B, Wu L, Koh C, Santín-Durán M, Pittaluga S, Uzel G, Kleiner D, Williams E, Ma CA, Bodansky A, Oliveira JB, Edmonds P, Hornung R, Wong DW, Fayer R, Fleisher T, Heller T, Prussin C, Jain A.
Clin Immunol. 2012 May;143(2):152-61.
Prevalence and genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in weaned beef calves on cow-calf operations in the USA
Santín M, Dargatz D, Fayer R.
Parasitol Res. 2012 May;110(5):2033-41.
Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and Cryptosporidium pestis: which name is valid?
Xiao L, Ryan UM, Fayer R, Bowman DD, Zhang L.
Exp Parasitol. 2012 Mar;130(3):308-9.
Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States
Santin M, Dargatz D, Fayer R.
Vet Parasitol. 2012 Feb;183(3):231-6.
Long-term sustainability of Escherichia coli removal in conventional bioretention media
Zhang L, Seagren E, Davis A, Karns J.
J Environ Eng. 2011 Aug;137(8):669-77.
Non-Journal Publications:
Cryptosporidiois in farmed animals - (Book / Chapter)
(21-Aug-13)
Chapter 2. Assessing the importance of zoonotic waterborne pathogens - (Book / Chapter)
Suresh, K., Toranzos, G., Fayer, R., Olveda, R., Ashbolt, N., Gannon, V. 2012. Chapter 2. Assessing the importance of zoonotic waterborne pathogens. In: Dufour, A., Bartram, J., editors. Animal Waste, Water Quality and Human Health. London, England: IWA Publishihg. p. 17-72.
Detection of multiple zoonotic infectious agents in cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods - (Abstract Only)
Fayer, R., Santin, M., Macarisin, D. 2012. Detection of multiple zoonotic infectious agents in cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods. Meeting Abstract. p. 73.
Cryptosporidium - (Book / Chapter)
Robertson, L., Fayer, R. 2012. Cryptosporidium. In: Foodborne protozoan parasites. Eds. Robertson L and Smith H. Nova Science Publuishers. NY. Book Chapter. p. 33-64.
Advances and outlook on the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis - (Abstract Only)
Santin, M. 2012. Advances and outlook on the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. [abstract].
Epidemiological characterization of cryptosporidiosis and its implications in public health - (Abstract Only)
Santin, M. 2012. Epidemiological characterization of cryptosporidiosis and its implications in public health. [abstract].
Muscular Sarcocystosis in travelers returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia — 2011 - (Abstract Only)
Esposito, D., Lankau, E., Von Sonnenburg, F., Cramer, J., Grobusch, M., Savini, H., Rapp, C., Perignon, A., Gobbi, F., Ghesquiere, W., Zanger, P., Neumayr, A., Da Silva, A., Rosenthal, B.M., Aronica, E., Plier, D., Brunette, G., Brown, C., Fayer, R., Sotir, M., Freedman, D. 2012. Muscular Sarcocystosis in travelers returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia — 2011. [abstract].
Are adequate methods available to detect protist parasites on fresh produce? - (Abstract Only)
Accepted Publication (14-Feb-12)
Prevalence and species of Cryptosporidium in human populations worldwide - (Abstract Only)
Accepted Publication (16-Nov-11)
Clinical and subclinical infections with Giardia and Cryptosporidium in animals - (Abstract Only)
Santin, M. 2012. Clinical and subclinical infections with Giardia and Cryptosporidium in animals. [abstract]. Book 4. . International Giardia and Cryptosporidium Conference. 4.
Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in cattle and other food animals [Spanish][Epidemiología molecular de cryptosporidiosis en el ganado vacuno y en otros animales de abasto] - (Abstract Only)
Santin, M. 2011. Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in cattle and other food animals [Spanish][Epidemiología molecular de cryptosporidiosis en el ganado vacuno y en otros animales de abasto] . Meeting Abstract.
Food Safety Categories:On-Farm Food Safety
Diseases and Allergies
Methodology
Epidemiology
Farm-to-Table Categories:On-farm food production
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