|Title:||Toxicology and Toxinology of Mycotoxins in Foods|
|Objective:||This project's goal is to fill critical knowledge gaps in the science-based risk assessment of fumonisin. Total elimination of fumonisin in commodities is not possible. Sound risk assessment and regulatory policy are the primary lines of defense for public health. |
The hypothesis linking objectives is that loss of value through imposition of unnecessarily low limits for fumonisin in corn, feeds and foods can be avoided by accurate hazard characterization and exposure assessment. The approach uses dose-response and mechanism based studies in animal models and humans to reveal the human disease risk from fumonisin. In addition mechanism based approaches are used to develop management and intervention strategies to minimize risk.
Specifically, the first objective will reveal the basis for the organ specificity of fumonisin and the biochemical basis for the species-specific targeting of liver versus kidney in animals.
Objectives 2 and 3 we will determine the threshold for mechanism-based biochemical changes in target tissues and biomarkers in blood and urine in animal models and humans.
Objective 4 utilizes improved understanding of the biochemical basis for corn seedling disease to develop strategies minimizing fumonisin contamination of corn.
Objective 5 addresses the optimization of alkaline processing of corn into products such as tortillas and other nixtamalized foods consumed in large amounts by Hispanic/Latino communities in the USA, Mexico and Central America.
The knowledge gained will reveal the exposure threshold for disease risk in humans and will provide practical strategies for reducing risks. Reduced risk will ensure a safer and more secure food supply.
|More Info:||Benefits - reduced likelihood of inappropriate maximum tolerance limits, protection of consumers, and prevention of economic losses resulting from ill conceived or inappropriate regulatory actions. The current basis for setting international tolerance levels for mycotoxins in agricultural products is science based risk assessment. Unnecessary loss of export value and the consequent restriction of the food supply can be prevented and, at the same time, consumer health can be protected by accurate hazard characterization (dose-response relationships and mechanism of action) and exposure assessment.|
|Funding Source:||United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS)|
|Institutions:||USDA/ARS - South Atlantic Area|
Glenn, Anthony (Tony)
|Project Reports:||2011 Annual Report|
|Pending USDA ARS Publications (NP 108):|
Fumonisin B1-induced neural tube defects were not increased in LM/Bc mice fed folate deficient diets
ARS (NP 108):
Fumonisin biomarkers in maize eaters and implications for human disease
Van Der Westhuizen L, Shephard GS, Gelderblom WA, Torres O, Riley RT .
World Mycotoxin J. 2013 Aug;6(3):223-32.
Alkaline cooking (nixtamalisation) and the reduction in the in vivo toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn in a rat feeding bioassay
Voss KA, Riley RT, Moore ND, Burns TD.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013 Aug;30(8):1415-21.
Effects of long term exposure to the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 in p53 heterozygous and p53 homozygous transgenic mice
Bondy G, Mehta R, Caldwell D, Coady L, Armstrong C, Savard M, Miller JD, Chomyshyn E, Bronson R, Zitomer N, Riley RT.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Oct;50(10):3604-13.
Increased sphingoid base-1-phosphates and failure of neural tube closure after exposure to fumonisin or FTY720
Gelineau-van Waes J, Rainey MA, Maddox JR, Voss KA, Sachs AJ, Gardner NM, Wilberding JD, Riley RT.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012 Oct;94(10):790-803.
The kinetics of urinary fumonisin B1 excretion in humans consuming maize-based diets
Riley RT, Torres O, Showker JL, Zitomer NC, Matute J, Voss KA, Gelineau-van Waes J, Maddox JR, Gregory SG, Ashley-Koch AE.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Sep;56(9):1445-55.
Effects of different extrusion conditions on the chemical and toxicological fate of fumonisin B1 in maize: a short review
Jackson LS, Voss KA, Ryu D.
World Mycotoxin J. 2012 Aug;5(3):251-60.
The conserved global regulator VeA is necessary for symptom production and mycotoxin synthesis in maize seedlings by Fusarium verticillioides
Myung K, Zitomer NC, Duvall M, Glenn AE, Riley RT, Calvo AM.
Plant Pathol. 2012 Feb 1;61(1):152-60.
Distinct generation, pharmacology, and distribution of sphingosine 1-phosphate and dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate in human neural progenitor cells
Callihan P, Zitomer NC, Stoeling MV, Kennedy PC, Lynch KR, Riley RT, Hooks SB.
Neuropharmacology. 2012 Feb;62(2):988-96.
Risk control and food safety - (Proceedings)
Yamamoto, S., Voss, K.A. 2013. Risk control and food safety. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A. 30(8):1349-1350. DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2013.812440.
Mycotoxins - (Book / Chapter)
Haschek, W.M., Voss, K.A., 2013. Mycotoxins. In: Haschek, W.M., Rousseaux, C.G., Wallig, M.A. (Eds.), Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology. Elsevier Inc., Academic Press. p. 1187-1258.
Neural Tube Defect Induction by Fumonisin B1 in LM/Bc Mice Fed Folate Deficient or Folate Replete Diets - (Abstract Only)
Voss, K.A., Riley, R.T., Gelineau-Van, W.J. 2013. Neural Tube Defect Induction by Fumonisin B1 in LM/Bc Mice Fed Folate Deficient or Folate Replete Diets [abstract]. United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). p. 34.
Development of biomarkers to assess fumonisin exposure and birth defects - (Book / Chapter)
Riley, R.T., Voss, K.A., Showker, A.J., Torres, O., Matute, J., Maddox, J.R., Rainey, M., Gardner, N.M., Sachs, A., Gregory, S.G., Ashley-Koch, A.E., Krupp, D., Gelineau-Van Waes, J. 2012. Development of biomarkers to assess fumonisin exposure and birth defects. In: Binder, E.M., editor. Proceedings of the World Nutrition Forum, October 10-13, 2012, Marina Bay, Singapore. p. 249-256.
Improving public health through mycotoxin control - (Book / Chapter)
Pitt, J.I., Wild, C.P., Gelderblom, W., Miller, J., Riley, R.T., Wu, F., Bann, R.A. 2012. Improving public health through mycotoxin control. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Publication No. 158. 162 p.
The use of bioassay to determine the effects of cooking on the toxicity of fumonisins - (Abstract Only)
Voss, K.A., Riley, R.T., Gelineau-Van Waes, J.B., Ryu, D., Jackson, L.S., Bianchini, A., Bullerman, L.B., Hanna, M.A. 2012. The use of bioassay to determine the effects of cooking on the toxicity of fumonisins [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Toxic Microorganisms "Risk Control and Food Safety." US Japan Joint Panel on Toxic Microorgnisms, March 5-6, 2012, Seiryo, Kaikan. p. 162.
Evidence for fumonisin inhibition of ceramide synthase in humans - (Abstract Only)
Riley, R.T., Showker, A.J., Voss, K.A., Gelineau-van Waes, J., Maddox, J.R., Gregory, S.G., Ashley-Koch, A.E., Torres, O. 2012. Evidence for fumonisin inhibition of ceramide synthase in humans [abstract]. The Toxicologist (supplement to Toxicological Sciences). 126(1):237.
Ceramide, sphingoid bases, and sphingoid base metabolites as lipid mediators in signaling pathways leading to cell death and disease - (Abstract Only)
Riley, R.T. 2012. Ceramide, sphingoid bases, and sphingoid base metabolites as lipid mediators in signaling pathways leading to cell death and disease [abstract]. The Toxicologist (supplement to Toxicological Sciences). 126(1):178.
Consumption of folate deficient diet did not increase neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice exposed to fumonisin B1 - (Abstract Only)
Voss, K.A., Riley, R.T., Gelineau-Van Waes, J.B. 2012. Consumption of folate deficient diet did not increase neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice exposed to fumonisin B1. Toxicological Sciences. 126(1):238.
Fumonisins - (Monograph)
Bulder, A.S., Arcella, D., Bolger, M., Carrington, C., Kpodo, K., Resnik, S.,Riley, R.T., Wolterink, G., Wu, F. 2012. Fumonisins. In: Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Geneva. World Health Organization. WHO Food Additives Series. 65:325-794.
Current perspectives on Fusarium mycotoxins: fumonisin and deoxynivalenol - (Abstract Only)
Voss, K.A., Riley, R.T., Gelineau-Van Waes, J.B., Pestka, J.J. 2011. Current perspectives on Fusarium mycotoxins: fumonisin and deoxynivalenol [abstract]. 7th Canadian Workshop on Fusarium Head Blight Proceedings. p. 24
Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants - (Other)
Members of Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Riley, R.T. 2011. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. In: Seventy-fourth meeting of the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives, June 14-23, 2011, Rome, Italy. WHO Technical Report Series. 966:1-136.
Analytical methods for evaluating the effect of thermal processing on fumonisins in corn-based food - (Abstract Only)
Jackson, L.S., Jablonski, J.E., Voss, K.A., Ryu, D. 2011. Analytical methods for evaluating the effect of thermal processing on fumonisins in corn-based food [abstract]. Cornucopia, Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, American Chemical Society. Abstract AGFD18:27.
|Food Safety Categories:||Diseases and Allergies|
Government Policy and Regulations
|Farm-to-Table categories:||On-farm food production|
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