Food Safety Research Information Office
Title:Toxicology and Toxinology of Mycotoxins in Foods
Objective:

1. Determine the biochemical and molecular basis for the species specificity of fumonisins using animal models.

2. Determine the dietary "no observed effect" and "lowest observed effect levels" for neural tube defect induction and determine the dose-response thresholds for elevation in sphingolipid biomarkers in blood spots and fumonisins in urine using animal models.

3. Determine the relationship between fumonisin consumption, urinary fumonisin (exposure biomarker) and changes in sphingolipids in blood spots (effect biomarker) in human populations consuming corn.

4. Determine the specific mechanism(s) by which fumonisins are readily taken up by corn plant roots and yet have limited translocation into above ground vegetative tissues.

5. Determine the effectiveness of alkaline cooking for reducing the toxic potential of fumonisin-contaminated whole kernel corn.

More Info:

1. Conduct dose-response studies to determine the minimum oral dose of FB1 that disrupts sphingolipid metabolism and induces toxicity (increased apoptosis) in rat kidney and mouse liver.

2. Conduct dose-response studies in susceptible mouse strains to determine the thresholds for changes in biomarkers of exposure and effect and induction of neural tube defects.

3. Conduct epidemiological studies to identify humans consuming large amounts of corn-based foods in communities where FB is infrequently detected and frequently detected and sample and analyze urine (FBs) and blood spots (sphingolipids).

4. Conduct dose response studies to determine FB1 affects on plant transpiration and levels of sphingoid bases and their 1-phosphates in roots and aerial tissues in FB1-sensitive and -insensitive genotypes of corn.

5. Utilize FB-contaminated whole kernel corn to determine the processing conditions that maximize FB1 reduction using chemical analysis and in vivo animal bioassays.

Funding Source:United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
Type:Appropriated
Start Date:2011
End Date:2016
Project Number:6612-42000-012-00
Accession Number:421115
Institutions:USDA/ARS - South Atlantic Area
Investigators:Bacon, Charles
Glenn, Anthony (Tony)
Riley, Ronald
Voss, Kenneth
Project Reports:2013 Annual Report
2012 Annual Report
2011 Annual Report
Published Journal
Articles USDA
ARS (NP 108):
Urinary fumonisin B1 and estimated fumonisin intake in women from high- and low-exposure communities in Guatemala
Torres O, Matute J, Waes JG, Maddox JR, Gregory SG, Ashley-Koch AE, Showker JL, Zitomer NC, Voss KA, Riley RT.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 May;58(5):973-83.
Fumonisin B1-induced neural tube defects were not increased in LM/Bc mice fed folate deficient diets
Voss KA, Riley RT, Gelineau-Van Waes J .
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Feb 28. [Epub ahead of print]
Maize seedling blight induced by Fusarium verticillioides: Accumulation of fumonisin B1 in leaves without colonization of the leaves
Baldwin TT, Zitomer NC, Mitchell TR, Zimeri AM, Bacon CW, Riley RT, Glenn AE.
J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Feb 13;62(9):2118-25.
Fumonisin biomarkers in maize eaters and implications for human disease
Van Der Westhuizen L, Shephard GS, Gelderblom WA, Torres O, Riley RT .
World Mycotoxin J. 2013 Aug;6(3):223-32.
Alkaline cooking (nixtamalisation) and the reduction in the in vivo toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn in a rat feeding bioassay
Voss KA, Riley RT, Moore ND, Burns TD.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013 Aug;30(8):1415-21.
Fumonisin toxicity and mechanism of action: overview and current perspectives
Voss KA, Riley RT .
Food Safety. 2013;1(1):2013006.
Effects of long term exposure to the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 in p53 heterozygous and p53 homozygous transgenic mice
Bondy G, Mehta R, Caldwell D, Coady L, Armstrong C, Savard M, Miller JD, Chomyshyn E, Bronson R, Zitomer N, Riley RT.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Oct;50(10):3604-13.
Increased sphingoid base-1-phosphates and failure of neural tube closure after exposure to fumonisin or FTY720
Gelineau-van Waes J, Rainey MA, Maddox JR, Voss KA, Sachs AJ, Gardner NM, Wilberding JD, Riley RT.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012 Oct;94(10):790-803.
The kinetics of urinary fumonisin B1 excretion in humans consuming maize-based diets
Riley RT, Torres O, Showker JL, Zitomer NC, Matute J, Voss KA, Gelineau-van Waes J, Maddox JR, Gregory SG, Ashley-Koch AE.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Sep;56(9):1445-55.
Effects of different extrusion conditions on the chemical and toxicological fate of fumonisin B1 in maize: a short review
Jackson LS, Voss KA, Ryu D.
World Mycotoxin J. 2012 Aug;5(3):251-60.
The conserved global regulator VeA is necessary for symptom production and mycotoxin synthesis in maize seedlings by Fusarium verticillioides
Myung K, Zitomer NC, Duvall M, Glenn AE, Riley RT, Calvo AM.
Plant Pathol. 2012 Feb 1;61(1):152-60.
Distinct generation, pharmacology, and distribution of sphingosine 1-phosphate and dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate in human neural progenitor cells
Callihan P, Zitomer NC, Stoeling MV, Kennedy PC, Lynch KR, Riley RT, Hooks SB.
Neuropharmacology. 2012 Feb;62(2):988-96.
Reduction of fumonisin B₁ in corn grits by twin-screw extrusion
Jackson LS, Jablonski J, Bullerman LB, Bianchini A, Hanna MA, Voss KA, Hollub AD, Ryu D.
J Food Sci. 2011 Aug;76(6):T150-5.
Non-Journal Publications:
Risk control and food safety - (Proceedings)
Yamamoto, S., Voss, K.A. 2013. Risk control and food safety. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A. 30(8):1349-1350. DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2013.812440.
Mycotoxins - (Book / Chapter)
Haschek, W.M., Voss, K.A., 2013. Mycotoxins. In: Haschek, W.M., Rousseaux, C.G., Wallig, M.A. (Eds.), Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology. Elsevier Inc., Academic Press. p. 1187-1258.
Neural Tube Defect Induction by Fumonisin B1 in LM/Bc Mice Fed Folate Deficient or Folate Replete Diets - (Abstract Only)
Voss, K.A., Riley, R.T., Gelineau-Van, W.J. 2013. Neural Tube Defect Induction by Fumonisin B1 in LM/Bc Mice Fed Folate Deficient or Folate Replete Diets [abstract]. United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR). p. 34.
Development of biomarkers to assess fumonisin exposure and birth defects - (Book / Chapter)
Riley, R.T., Voss, K.A., Showker, A.J., Torres, O., Matute, J., Maddox, J.R., Rainey, M., Gardner, N.M., Sachs, A., Gregory, S.G., Ashley-Koch, A.E., Krupp, D., Gelineau-Van Waes, J. 2012. Development of biomarkers to assess fumonisin exposure and birth defects. In: Binder, E.M., editor. Proceedings of the World Nutrition Forum, October 10-13, 2012, Marina Bay, Singapore. p. 249-256.
Improving public health through mycotoxin control - (Book / Chapter)
Pitt, J.I., Wild, C.P., Gelderblom, W., Miller, J., Riley, R.T., Wu, F., Bann, R.A. 2012. Improving public health through mycotoxin control. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Publication No. 158. 162 p.
The use of bioassay to determine the effects of cooking on the toxicity of fumonisins - (Abstract Only)
Voss, K.A., Riley, R.T., Gelineau-Van Waes, J.B., Ryu, D., Jackson, L.S., Bianchini, A., Bullerman, L.B., Hanna, M.A. 2012. The use of bioassay to determine the effects of cooking on the toxicity of fumonisins [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Toxic Microorganisms "Risk Control and Food Safety." US Japan Joint Panel on Toxic Microorgnisms, March 5-6, 2012, Seiryo, Kaikan. p. 162.
Evidence for fumonisin inhibition of ceramide synthase in humans - (Abstract Only)
Riley, R.T., Showker, A.J., Voss, K.A., Gelineau-van Waes, J., Maddox, J.R., Gregory, S.G., Ashley-Koch, A.E., Torres, O. 2012. Evidence for fumonisin inhibition of ceramide synthase in humans [abstract]. The Toxicologist (supplement to Toxicological Sciences). 126(1):237.
Ceramide, sphingoid bases, and sphingoid base metabolites as lipid mediators in signaling pathways leading to cell death and disease - (Abstract Only)
Riley, R.T. 2012. Ceramide, sphingoid bases, and sphingoid base metabolites as lipid mediators in signaling pathways leading to cell death and disease [abstract]. The Toxicologist (supplement to Toxicological Sciences). 126(1):178.
Consumption of folate deficient diet did not increase neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice exposed to fumonisin B1 - (Abstract Only)
Voss, K.A., Riley, R.T., Gelineau-Van Waes, J.B. 2012. Consumption of folate deficient diet did not increase neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice exposed to fumonisin B1. Toxicological Sciences. 126(1):238.
Fumonisins - (Monograph)
Bulder, A.S., Arcella, D., Bolger, M., Carrington, C., Kpodo, K., Resnik, S.,Riley, R.T., Wolterink, G., Wu, F. 2012. Fumonisins. In: Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Geneva. World Health Organization. WHO Food Additives Series. 65:325-794.
Current perspectives on Fusarium mycotoxins: fumonisin and deoxynivalenol - (Abstract Only)
Voss, K.A., Riley, R.T., Gelineau-Van Waes, J.B., Pestka, J.J. 2011. Current perspectives on Fusarium mycotoxins: fumonisin and deoxynivalenol [abstract]. 7th Canadian Workshop on Fusarium Head Blight Proceedings. p. 24
Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants - (Other)
Members of Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Riley, R.T. 2011. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. In: Seventy-fourth meeting of the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives, June 14-23, 2011, Rome, Italy. WHO Technical Report Series. 966:1-136.
Analytical methods for evaluating the effect of thermal processing on fumonisins in corn-based food - (Abstract Only)
Jackson, L.S., Jablonski, J.E., Voss, K.A., Ryu, D. 2011. Analytical methods for evaluating the effect of thermal processing on fumonisins in corn-based food [abstract]. Cornucopia, Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, American Chemical Society. Abstract AGFD18:27.
Food Safety Categories:Diseases and Allergies
Government Policy and Regulations
Risk Assessment
Farm-to-Table Categories:On-farm food production
Food processing
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