Food Safety Research Information Office
Title:Pathogen Mitigation in Livestock and Red Meat Production
Objective:

Objective 1: Develop and validate intervention strategies that reduce or eliminate foodborne pathogens at the animal and processing levels.

Objective 2: Determine and validate detection methods for foodborne pathogen colonization and contamination at various stages in the production of red meat.

Objective 3: Examine host pathogen interactions with an emphasis on host-specific determinants of pathogen colonization.

More Info:
Approach:
The research to be conducted in this project will focus on Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) and Salmonella at multiple stages of the beef production continuum and contains both basic and applied aspects. The research objectives have been divided into classifications of antimicrobial intervention, detection methodology, and host-pathogen interaction. Antimicrobial interventions to be investigated include applications for the live animal and for carcasses during harvest. Feed supplements will be studied as a means of reducing E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. Feed supplements are more easily administered than other potential preharvest interventions, such as vaccines, and may provide cross protection against a variety of pathogens. As the hide has been shown to be the source of carcass contamination at processing, any reduction in hide pathogen load should result in lower carcass contamination rates. Thermal dehairing will be investigated as a means to sanitize the cattle hide prior to hide removal. Work will be done to evaluate application of bacteriophage to the hide of the live animal just prior to entrance into the processing plant as an additional step to reduce carriage of E. coli O157:H7 on the animal’s hide. Basic research to model the colonization of E. coli O157:H7 at the bovine recto-anal junction will allow for in vitro assay development to identify direct methods of colonization disruption and mitigation to reduce or eliminate the pathogen from the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. Non-O157 STEC are becoming an increasing burden on beef production with potential regulatory policy based on these organisms. The project described herein will endeavor to develop and validate methodologies for the detection of non-O157 STEC that will provide the beef industry with more sensitive and specific tools to combat these pathogens. While STEC contamination of beef carcasses occurs predominantly through transfer of the pathogens from the hide of the animal to the carcass as the hide is removed, Salmonella contamination has been shown to reside within the tissues of the animal. Previous work has shown that Salmonella can be isolated from lymph nodes located within meat cuts destined for human consumption. Experiments have been designed to study the dissemination of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes throughout the animal during an active infection and after clinical symptoms have subsided.
Funding Source:United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
Type:Appropriated
Start Date:2011
End Date:2016
Project Number:5438-42000-014-00
Accession Number:420868
Institutions:USDA/ARS - Northern Plains Area
Investigators:Arthur, Terrance
Bosilevac, Joseph
Kalchayanand, Norasak
Schmidt, John
Shackelford, Steven
Wang, Rong
Wheeler, Tommy Lee
Project Reports:2013 Annual Report
2012 Annual Report
2011 Annual Report
Published Journal
Articles USDA
ARS (NP 108):
Effects of in-plant interventions on reduction of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and background indicator microorganisms on veal calf hides
Wang R, Koohmaraie M, Luedtke BE, Wheeler TL, Bosilevac JM.
J Food Prot. 2014 May;77(5):745-51.
Immersion in antimicrobial solutions reduces Salmonella enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli on beef cheek meat
Schmidt JW, Bosilevac JM, Kalchayanand N, Wang R, Wheeler TL, Koohmaraie M .
J Food Protect. 2014 Apr;77(4):538-48.
Characterization of E. coli O157:H7 strains resulting from contamination of raw beef trim during high event periods
Arthur TM, Bono JL, Kalchayanand N .
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014 Jan;80(2):506-14.
Impact of sampling area and location on measurement of indicator organisms during beef carcass interventions
Wang R, King DA, Koohmaraie M, Bosilevac JM .
J Food Prot. 2013 Dec;76(12):2069-73.
Mixed biofilm formation by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium enhanced bacterial resistance to sanitization due to extracellular polymeric substances
Wang R, Kalchayanand N, Schmidt JW, Harhay DM.
J Food Prot. 2013 Sep;76(9):1513-22.
Characterization E.coli 0157:H7 strains isolated from super-shedding cattle
Arthur TM, Ahmed R, Chase-Topping M, Kalchayanand N, Schmidt JW, Bono JL.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013 Jul;79(14):4294-303.
The physiologic state of Escherichia coli O157:H7 does not affect its detection in two commercial real-time PCR-based tests
Wang R, Schmidt JW, Arthur TM, Bosilevac JM.
Food Microbiol. 2013 Apr;33(2):205-12.
Resistance of various shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli to electrolyzed oxidizing water
Ravirajsinh J, Hung Y-C, Bosilevac J.
Food Control. 2013 Apr;30(2):580-4.
Chromogenic agar medium for detection and isolation of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 from fresh beef and cattle feces
Kalchayanand N, Arthur TM, Bosilevac JM, Wells JE, Wheeler TL.
J Food Prot. 2013 Feb;76(2):192-9.
Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in air and droplets at three U.S. commercial beef processing plants
Schmidt JW, Arthur TM, Bosilevac JM, Kalchayanand N, Wheeler TL.
J Food Prot. 2012 Dec;75(12):2213-8.
Predicting the presence of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by using molecular tests for Shiga toxins, intimin, and O serogroups
Bosilevac JM, Koohmaraie M.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012 Oct;78(19):7152-5.
Evaluation of commonly used antimicrobial interventions for fresh beef inoculated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotypes O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157:H7
Kalchayanand N, Arthur TM, Bosilevac JM, Schmidt JW, Wang R, Shackelford SD, Wheeler TL.
J Food Prot. 2012 Jul;75(7):1207-12.
Efficacy of hypobromous acid as a hide-on carcass antimicrobial intervention
Schmidt JW, Wang R, Kalchayanand N, Wheeler TL, Koohmaraie M.
J Food Prot. 2012 May;75(5):955-8.
Microbiological analysis of bovine lymph nodes for the detection of Salmonella enterica
Brichta-Harhay DM, Arthur TM, Bosilevac JM, Kalchayanand N, Schmidt JW, Wang R, Shackelford SD, Loneragan GH, Wheeler TL.
J Food Prot. 2012 May;75(5):854-8.
Prevalence, enumeration, serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of salmonella enterica isolates from carcasses at two large United States pork processing plants
Schmidt JW, Brichta-Harhay DM, Kalchayanand N, Bosilevac JM, Shackelford SD, Wheeler TL, Koohmaraie M.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012 Apr;78(8):2716-26.
Non-Journal Publications:
Antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in the beef production and processing chain - (Abstract Only)
Schmidt, J.W., Harhay, D.M., Shackelford, S.D., Wheeler, T.L., Arthur, T.M. 2014. Antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in the beef production and processing chain. [abstract] American Society for Microbiology 114th General Meeting. No. 1033.
Effect of residual sanitizers on Salmonella enterica biofilm formation - (Abstract Only)
(05-Mar-14)
Minimal heat treatments reduce Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)and Salmonella on surface of fresh beef - (Abstract Only)
(13-Feb-14)
Antibiotic resistance by source: human-cattle-swine - (Abstract Only)
Arthur, T.M., Agga, G.E., Schmidt, J.W. 2014. Antibiotic resistance by source: human-cattle-swine. [Abstract] Beef Industry Safety Summit. Available: www.bifsco.org/attendees.aspx.
Prevalence and serotypes of intimin (eae) positive Shiga toxin-producing E. coli colonizing cattle arriving at fed beef and cull cow plants in the US - (Abstract Only)
Bosilevac, J.M., Luedtke, B.E., Arthur, T.M., Kalchayanand, N., Schmidt, J.W., Shackelford, S.D., Wheeler, T.L. 2014. Prevalence and serotypes of intimin (eae) positive Shiga toxin-producing E. coli colonizing cattle arriving at fed beef and cull cow plants in the U.S. [abstract] Beef Industry Safety Summit. Available: www.bifsco.org/attendees.aspx.
Bacterial antibiotic resistance, animal agriculture, and human health: no simple answer at the interface of three complex systems - (Proceedings)
Schmidt, J.W. 2013. Bacterial antibiotic resistance, animal agriculture, and human health: no simple answer at the interface of three complex systems. Proceedings of the American Meat Science Association Reciprocal 66th Annual Meat Conference, June 16-19, 2013, Auburn, Alabama, p.60-63.
Biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance contributes to “High Event” meat contamination by E. coli O157:H7 - (Abstract Only)
Wang, R., Kalchayanand, N., Bosilevac, J.M., Arthur, T.M. 2013. Biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance contributes to “High Event” meat contamination by E. coli O157:H7. International Association for Food Protection Proceedings. [abstract] P1-48 Page No.48.
Ultraviolet light (UV) and UV-ozone interventions reduce shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) on contaminated fresh beef - (Abstract Only)
Kalchayanand, N., Bosilevac, J.M., Wheeler, T.L. 2013. Ultraviolet light (UV) and UV-ozone interventions reduce shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) on contaminated fresh beef. American Society for Microbiology General Meeting. Poster No. 1596 p.166.
Characterization of E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from super-shedding cattle - (Abstract Only)
Arthur, T.M., Ahmed, R., Chase-Topping, M., Kalchayanand, N., Schmidt, J.W., Bono, J.L. 2013. Characterization of E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from super-shedding cattle. American Society for Microbiology General Meeting. Poster No. 1707, p 171.
Comparison of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli detection systems - (Proceedings)
Bosilevac, J.M. 2013. Comparison of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli detection systems.Proceedings of the Beef Industry Safety Summit, March 13-15, 2013, Dallas Texas. 2013 FLASHDRIVE.
Detection methods and intervention strategies for shiga toxin-producing E. coli in beef - (Abstract Only)
Kalchayanand, N., Arthur, T.M., Bosilevac, J.M., Wheeler, T.L. 2012. Detection methods and intervention strategies for shiga toxin-producing E. coli in beef [abstract]. Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists. 061-01:52.
Efficacy of ultraviolet light (UV) and UV-ozone as an intervention to reduce pathogens-contaminated fresh beef - (Abstract Only)
Kalchayanand, N., Bosilevac, J.M., Wheeler, T.L. 2012. Efficacy of ultraviolet light (UV) and UV-ozone as an intervention to reduce pathogens-contaminated fresh beef.[Abstract] Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists.June 25-28, 2012, Las Vegas, Nevada. Abstract 035-71:25.
Analysis of E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from raw beef contamination events - (Abstract Only)
Arthur, T.M. 2012. Analysis of E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from raw beef contamination events [abstract]. 2012 Beef Industry Safety Summit. Abstract No. 11.
Characterization of E. coli O157:H7 strains associated with super-shedding cattle - (Abstract Only)
Arthur, T.M. 2012. Characterization of E. coli O157:H7 strains associated with super-shedding cattle [abstract]. 2012 Beef Industry Safety Summit. Abstract No. 1.
Prevalence and characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from feedlot and cull dairy and beef herd cattle - (Abstract Only)
Accepted Publication (31-Jan-12)
Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest - (Abstract Only)
Gragg, S.E., Loneragan, G.H., Brashears, M.M., Arthur, T.M., Bosilevac, J.M., Kalchayanand, N., Wang, R., Schmidt, J.W., Brooks, J.C., Shackelford, S.D., Wheeler, T.L., Brown, T.R., Brichta-Harhay, D.M. 2011. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest [abstract]. Proceeding of the 2011 Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases, December 4-6, 2011, Chicago, Illinois. p. 149.
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: prevalence associated with meat animals and controlling interventions - (Proceedings)
Kalchayanand, N., Arthur, T.M., Bosilevac, J.M., Wheeler, T.L. 2012. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: prevalence associated with meat animals and controlling interventions. Proceedings of American Meat Science Association 64th Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference, June 19-22, 2011, Kansas State University, Manhattan Kansas. p.1-9.
Food Safety Categories:Sanitation and Pathogen Control
Government Policy and Regulations
Methodology
Pathogen Biology
Farm-to-Table Categories:Food processing
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