|Title:||Genetic Control of Fusarium Mycotoxins to Enhance Food Safety|
|Objective:||With a growing world population, access to safe food for all consumers, both domestic and international, will continue to be a global priority. In recent years, the world has experienced an increase in mycotoxin contamination of grains due to climatic and agronomic changes that encourage fungal growth during cultivation. One approach to reduce mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is to prevent preharvest infection of crop plants by mycotoxin-producing fungi. An alternative approach is to modify mycotoxins present in crops in order to render them nontoxic and safe for consumption by humans and animals. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important diseases of wheat and other cereal grains worldwide. It reduces yield and quality and results in contamination of grain with trichothecene mycotoxins. The disease is caused by Fusarium graminearum as well as other trichothecene-producing species of Fusarium. |
The primary goal of the proposed research is to reduce levels of trichothecenes and other mycotoxins through studies that reveal how plants, the fungus Fusarium, and mycotoxins interact during infection. We expect to identify novel genes that modify, detoxify, or otherwise confer resistance to mycotoxins and to study the physiological and molecular role of mycotoxin production on the ability of Fusarium to infect wheat and other crops. We also will examine the genetic bases and ecological significance of variation in types of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium.
Knowledge from these studies will contribute to development of strategies to control FHB, thereby protecting our food supply from mycotoxins. This technology will ultimately benefit other scientists, small grain breeders, stakeholders in the food and feed industry, and regulatory agencies such as the Center for Disease Control, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Federal Grain Inspection Service, and Food Safety Inspection Service.
|More Info:||The potential benefits of this research will be the increase in knowledge of the fungus, the production of mycotoxins, and plant/fungal interactions. Also, the elucidation of natural plant or fungal mechanisms for resistance to mycotoxins and infection may facilitate classical breeding and genetic engineering of wheat and other crop plants for resistance to F. graminearum. These research results will benefit the farmer by increasing the yield and seed quality and benefit the consumer by lowering or eliminating Fusarium mycotoxins from the food supply.|
|Funding Source:||United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS)|
|Institutions:||USDA/ARS - Midwest Area|
|Pending USDA ARS Publications (NP 108):|
ARS (NP 108):
Functional roles of FgLaeA in controlling secondary metabolism, sexual development, and virulence in Fusarium graminearum
Kim H, Lee S, Jo S, Mccormick SP, Butchko R, Proctor R, Yun S .
PLoS One. 2013 Jul 16;8(7):e68441.
Relevance of trichothecenes in fungal physiology: Disruption of tri5 in Trichoderma arundinaceum
Malmierca MG, Cardoza R, Alexander NJ, Mccormick SP, Collado IG, Hermosa R, Monte E, Gutierrez S .
Fungal Genet Biol. 2013 Apr;53:22-33.
Greenhouse studies reveal increased aggressiveness of emergent Canadian Fusarium graminearum chemotypes in wheat
Foroud NA, McCormick SP, MacMillan T, Badea A, Kendra DF, Ellis BE, Eudes F.
Plant Disease. 2013 Jan;35(1):37-45.
Glucosylation and other biotransformations of T-2 toxin by yeasts of the Trichomonascus clade
McCormick SP, Price NP, Kurtzman CP.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012 Dec;78(24):8694-702.
Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit resistance to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol
Shin S, Torres-Acosta JA, Heinen SJ, McCormick S, Lemmens M, Paris MP, Berthiller F, Adam G, Muehlbauer GJ.
J Exp Bot. 2012 Aug;63(13):4731-40.
Involvement of Trichoderma trichothecenes in the biocontrol activity and induction of plant defense-related genes
Malmierca MG, Cardoza RE, Alexander NJ, McCormick SP, Hermosa R, Monte E, Gutiérrez S.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012 Jul;78(14):4856-68.
Trichothecene mycotoxins inhibit mitochondrial translation--implication for the mechanism of toxicity
Bin-Umer MA, McLaughlin JE, Basu D, McCormick S, Tumer NE.
Toxins. 2011 Dec;3(12):1484-501.
Lipid transfer protein-mediated resistance to a trichothecene mycotoxin â€“ Novel players in FHB resistance - (Abstract Only)
Accepted Publication (06-Dec-12)
Developing Fusarium head blight resistant wheat - (Abstract Only)
Accepted Publication (06-Dec-12)
The role of trichothecenes in the Triticeae-Fusarium graminearum interactions - (Abstract Only)
Muehlbauer, G.J., Boddu, J., Gardiner, S., Shin, S., Jia, H., Cho, S., Mccormick, S.P., Schweiger, W., Lemmons, M., Berthiller, F., Hametner, C., Kovalsky Paris, P.M., Torres-Acosta, J.A., Adam, G. 2012. The role of trichothecenes in the Triticeae-Fusarium graminearum interactions. American Phytopathological Society Abstracts.
Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecenes - (Abstract Only)
Shin, S., Torres-Acosta, A., Lemmens, M., Paris, P., Berthiller, F., Adam, G., Mccormick, S.P., Muehlbauer, G.J. 2011. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecenes. National Fusarium Head Blight Forum Proceedings. Session3,p.96.
An activation tagging screen to identify novel genes for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance - (Abstract Only)
Mclaughlin, J., Bin Umer, A., Basu, D., Mccormick, S.P., Tumer, N.E. 2011. An activation tagging screen to identify novel genes for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance. National Fusarium Head Blight Forum Proceedings. Session3,p.90.
Trichothecene mycotoxins inhibit mitochondrial translation- Implication for FHB resistance - (Abstract Only)
Bin-Umer, M.A., Mclaughlin, J., Basu, D., Mccormick, S.P., Tumer, N.E. 2011. Trichothecene mycotoxins inhibit mitochondrial translation- Implication for FHB resistance. National Fusarium Head Blight Forum Proceedings. Session3,p.81.
Identification of a trichothecene gene cluster and description of the harzianum A biosynthesis pathway in the fungus Trichoderma arundinaceum - (Abstract Only)
Malmierca, M.G., Hermosa, R., Alexander, N.J., Mccormick, S.P., Proctor, R., Rumbero, A., Monte, E., Gutierrez, S., Cardoza, R.E. 2011. Identification of a trichothecene gene cluster and description of the harzianum A biosynthesis pathway in the fungus Trichoderma arundinaceum. Meeting Abstract. PS6:51.
Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins - (Abstract Only)
Shin, S., Torres Acosta, A., Berthiller, F., Schweiger, W., Adam, G., Mccormick, S.P., Muehlbauer, G. 2011. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins. Meeting Abstract.
|Food Safety Categories:||Government Policy and Regulations|
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