Food Safety Research Information Office
Title:Developing Processing Intervention Technologies
Objective:

The overall goal of this research is to reduce the risk of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of produce and shell eggs. Effective postharvest intervention technologies for these foods have proven difficult to implement and, therefore, are on the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's list of highest research priorities. This new project was formed to apply proven engineering expertise to the development of efficient intervention strategies for challenging foods such as shell eggs, fresh produce and frozen produce. While other projects continue looking at intervention methods such as hot water immersion, irradiation and cold plasma for these types of foods, the proposed project will research novel technologies including microwave, radio frequency, UV, and flash steam. The specific objectives of the research program are as follows:

1: Develop, evaluate, and validate through laboratory and pilot-plant processing the effect of single and combinations of intervention technologies on pathogen reduction in eggs. Specifically, conduct research to "pasteurize" shell eggs using technologies, such as microwave heating or ozone-based combination treatments.

2: Develop, evaluate, and validate through laboratory and pilot-plant processing the effect of single and combinations of intervention technologies on pathogen reduction in fresh produce. For example, engineer flash steam and UV treatments and develop antimicrobial/antioxidant compounds of GRAS origin as a processing aid for fruits and vegetables. 2A: Develop and evaluate a hurdle approach to inactivate Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 from tomato stem scar tissue. Application of thermal energy to the stem scar region of the tomato will be employed for the destruction of pathogens and to expose bacteria to subsequent treatments including antimicrobial immersion. 2B: Develop and evaluate a novel approach to inactivate Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on berries by an antimicrobial water agitation treatment. Aerated turbulence and vacuum will be applied to berries in order to remove particulate matter and expose niches within the host tissue to antimicrobials. 2C: Develop and evaluate a hurdle approach to inactivate Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 on fresh fruits and vegetables using individual treatments or a combination of antimicrobials and flash steam.

3: Develop, evaluate, and validate through laboratory and pilot-plant processing the effect of single and combinations of intervention technologies on pathogen reduction for frozen fruits and vegetables. Currently some vegetables are processed through snap freezing. It might be possible to develop a steam pasteurization processing technology that would allow vegetables to be stored refrigerated instead of frozen while having a stable shelf life.

More Info:
Approach: Radio frequency (RF) heating intervention technology will be developed that requires less time to pasteurize shell eggs than hot water immersion. A 4 kW RF unit will be modified to enable the application of RF energy to a shell egg. Another option to improve heating uniformity is to immerse the shell eggs in a liquid while applying RF energy. In addition, nonthermal ozone treatment of shell eggs will be evaluated for reducing Salmonella. Combinations of these technologies, such as ozone and RF, will be investigated. Shell eggs will be sent to Dr. Deana Jones (Athens, GA) for extensive quality tests including foaming ability, Haugh unit, yolk index, as well as turbidity and viscosity of the egg white. Tomatoes will be inoculated and the current practice of trimming stem-scar tissue will be tested to determine if subsequent cross-contamination of tomatoes occurs during traditional stem-scar removal. Vacuum perfusion sanitization will be used in combination with chemical sanitizers for the decontamination of Salmonella and E. coli from tomatoes. A novel localized heat treatment for the physical inactivation of Salmonella within the stem scar of tomatoes will be developed. Our engineers will modify existing technology currently used for the electrical thermal dehorning of sheep, goats and cattle. Berries will be inoculated and a hurdle approach to decontaminating berries will be applied by the use of sanitizers in combination with physical treatments such as applied vacuum perfusion, or aerated turbulence of water. Fruit (including melon, apple, tomato, pepper, mango, cucumber, and pear) surfaces will be inoculated and a novel antimicrobial treatment will be developed that will not impact the sensorial quality. The kinetics and mechanism of inactivation of the developed antimicrobial wash solutions will be investigated. Flash steam technology will be used to inactivate bacteria on such fruits and vegetables as peppers, cantaloupes, mangoes, green onions, parsley, cabbage, cucumbers, and radishes. The produce will be evaluated for thermal and mechanical damage using a texture analyzer and colorimeter. Frozen fruit (e.g., berries) and vegetables (e.g., corn and peas) will be inoculated and GRAS antimicrobial compounds will be used to sensitize foodborne pathogens to UV light inactivation and inhibit growth of pathogens on thawed fruits and vegetables. The bacterial inactivation using pulsed UV bulbs, that provide higher intensities than 254 nm UV bulbs, will be investigated. The latest technology to emerge is UV-LED (light-emitting diode). UV-LEDs are compact, do not fail as quickly as other types of UV bulbs, and have a potential for significant energy savings.
Funding Source:United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
Type:Appropriated
Start Date:2011
End Date:2016
Project Number:1935-41420-017-00
Accession Number:421010
Institutions:USDA/ARS - North Atlantic Area
Investigators:Geveke, David
Gurtler, Joshua
Ukuku, Dike
Published Journal
Articles USDA
ARS (NP 108):
Nonthermal processing of orange juice using a pilot-plant scale supercritical carbon dioxide system with a gas-liquid metal contactor
Yuk HG, Sampedro F, Fan X, Geveke D.
J Food Process Pres. 2014 Feb;38(1):630-8.
Effect of organic acid treatments on microbial safety and overall acceptability of fresh-cut cantaloupe cubes
Ukuku DO, Mukhopadhyay S, Olanya OM .
J Food Agric Environ. 2013 Oct;11(3):340-5.
Effects of pre- or post-processing storage conditions on high-hydrostatic pressure inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oysters
Ye M, Huang Y, Gurtler JB, Niemira BA, Sites JE, Chen H.
Int J Food Microbiol. 2013 May 15;163(2):146-52.
Liquid egg white pasteurization using a centrifugal UV irradiator
Geveke, D.J., Torres, D.
Int J Food Microbiol. 2013 Mar;162(1):43-7.
Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in soil and translocation into leeks (Allium porrum) as influenced by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices)
Gurtler JB, Douds DD Jr, Dirks BP, Quinlan JJ, Nicholson AM, Phillips JG, Niemira BA.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013 Mar;79(6):1813-20.
Effect of storage temperature on survival and recovery of thermal and extrusion injured Escherichia coli K-12 in whey protein concentrate and corn meal
Ukuku DO, Mukhopadhyay S, Onwulata C.
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2013 Jan;10(1):62-8.
Cost analysis of commercial pasteurization of orange juice by pulsed electric fields
Sampedro F, McAloon A, Yee W, Fan X, Zhang H, Geveke D.
Innov Food Sci Emerging Technol. 2013 Jan;17:72-8.
Membrane damage and viability loss of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp in apple juice treated with high hydrostatic pressure and thermal death time disks
Ukuku D, Yamamoto K, Bari L, Mukhopadhyay S, Juneja V, Kawamoto S.
J Food Process Technol. 2013;4(6):236.
Effect of native microflora, waiting period, and storage temperature on Listeria monocytogenes serovars transferred from cantaloupe rind to fresh-cut pieces during preparation
Ukuku DO, Olanya M, Geveke DJ, Sommers CH.
J Food Prot. 2012 Nov;75(11):1912-9.
Pasteurization of grapefruit juice using a centrifugal ultraviolet light irradiator
Geveke D, Torres D.
J Food Engineering. 2012 Jul;111(2):241-6.
Effect of thermal and radio frequency electric fields treatments on Escherichia coli bacteria in apple juice
Ukuku D, Geveke D, Cooke P.
J Microbial Biochem Technol. 2012;4(3):76-81.
Behavior of Escherichia coli bacteria in whey protein and corn meal during twin screw extrusion processing at different temperatures
Ukuke D, Onwulata C, Mukhopadhyay S.
J Food Process Technol. 2012;3(4):1000150.
Behavior of Yersinian enteriocolitica in foods
Bari L, Hossain AM, Isshiki K, Ukuku D.
J Pathog. 2011;2011:1-13.
Non-journal publications:
Inactivation of natural microflora and Escherichia coli K-12 on cantaloupe rind surfaces using wet steam treatments - (Abstract Only)
Ukuku, D.O., Geveke, D.J., Chau, L.I., Bigley Jr, A.B. 2013. Inactivation of natural microflora and Escherichia coli K-12 on cantaloupe rind surfaces using wet steam treatments. International Association for Food Protection. 1:1.
Survival and growth populations of Salmonella transferred from melon rind surfaces to cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon pulps during preparation - (Abstract Only)
Ukuku, D.O. 2013. Survival and growth populations of Salmonella transferred from melon rind surfaces to cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon pulps during preparation. Meeting Abstract. Annual IAFP meeting., Charlotte, NC., July 28-31, 2013. Volume 1, Page 1.
Survival of Salmonella, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, non-0157 shiga toxin producing E.coli, and potential surrogate bacteria in crop soil as affected by the addition of fast pyrolysis-generated switchgrass biochar - (Abstract Only)
Gurtler, J., Boateng, A.A., Douds, D.D., Bailey, R. 2013. Survival of Salmonella, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, non-0157 shiga toxin producing E.coli, and potential surrogate bacteria in crop soil as affected by the addition of fast pyrolysis-generated switchgrass biochar. Meeting Abstract. IAFP Annual Meeting, Charlotte, NC., July 28-31, 2013.Volume 1, Page 1.
High pressure treatment of human norovirus virus-like particles: factors affecting destruction efficacy - (Abstract Only)
Lou, F., Li, X., Huang, P., Niemira, B.A., Gurtler, J., Jiang, X., Chen, H., Li, J. 2013. High pressure treatment of human norovirus virus-like particles: factors affecting destruction efficacy. Meeting Abstract. American Society for Virology, 32nd Annual Meeting, July 20-24,2013. Volume 1, Page 1.
Produce safety and quality research at ERRC - (Abstract Only)
Ukuku, D.O. 2013. Produce safety and quality research at ERRC. Meeting Abstract., International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science and Therapy, July 15-17, 2013, Philadelphia, PA., Volume 1, Page 1.
Survival and growth parameters of Escherichia Coli 0157:H7, Salmonella Spp. and Listeria Monocytogenes on fresh-cut pieces prepared from whole cantaloupe treated with Lovit sanitizer - (Abstract Only)
Ukuku, D.O., Huang, L. 2013. Survival and growth parameters of Escherichia Coli 0157:H7, Salmonella Spp. and Listeria Monocytogenes on fresh-cut pieces prepared from whole cantaloupe treated with Lovit sanitizer. Meeting Abstract. 2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science and Therapy, Philadelphia, PA., July 15-17, 2013., Volume 1, Page 1.
Pasteurization of strawberry puree using a pilot plant pulsed electric fields (PEF) system - (Abstract Only)
Geveke, D.J., Aubuchon, I., Zhang, H.Q., Boyd, G., Sites, J.E., Bigley Jr, A.B. 2013. Pasteurization of strawberry puree using a pilot plant pulsed electric fields (PEF) system. Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists. 1:1.
Inactivation of Listeria Monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium in apple juice using combinations of cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and trans-2-hexenal - (Abstract Only)
Abdulmalik, T., Levy, J., Boyer, R.R., Gurtler, J., O'Keefe, S.F., Williams, R.C. 2013. Inactivation of Listeria Monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium in apple juice using combinations of cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and trans-2-hexenal. Meeting Abstract. IAFP Annual Meeting, Charlotte, NC., July 28-31, 2013.,Volume 1, Page 1.
High pressure treatment of human norovirus-like particles: factors affecting destruction efficacy - (Abstract Only)
Lou, F., Li, X., Huang, P., Gurtler, J., Niemira, B.A., Jiang, X., Chen, H., Li, J. 2013. High pressure treatment of human norovirus-like particles: factors affecting destruction efficacy. Meeting Abstract. IFT Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois.,July 13-16, 2013. Volume 1, Page 1.
Inactivation of Escherichia coli on tomatoes using a ultraviolet(LED)light - (Abstract Only)
Geveke, D.J., Brunkhorst, C. 2013. Inactivation of Escherichia coli on tomatoes using a ultraviolet(LED)light. Meeting Abstract.Institute of food Technologists Annual Meeting.,Chicago, Illinois., July 13-16,2013., Volume 1, Page 1.
Rotating shell eggs immersed in hot water for the purpose of pasteurization - (Abstract Only)
Geveke, D.J., Bigley Jr, A.B. 2013. Rotating shell eggs immersed in hot water for the purpose of pasteurization. Meeting Abstract., Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting., Chicago, Illinois., July 13-16, 2013., Volume 1, Page 1.
Cellular damage of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in apple juice treated with high hydrostatic pressure and thermal death time disks - (Abstract Only)
Ukuku, D.O., Yamamoto, K., Kawamoto, S. 2012. Cellular damage of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in apple juice treated with high hydrostatic pressure and thermal death time disks. Meeting Abstract. American Chemical Society Meeting and Exposition. Philadelphia, PA, August 19-23, 2012., Volume 1, Page 1.
Prioritizing food safety and research - (Proceedings)
Gurtler, J. 2012. Prioritizing food safety and research. Symposium Proceedings. 79th Annual Meeting of Korean Society of Food Science and Technology (KoSFROST) Food Microbiology and Safety Symposium, Daejeon, Republic of Korea., June 13-15, 2012., Volume 1, Page 1.
Effect of storage temperature on the survival and growth of Listeria monocyotogenes populations in the presence of indigenous surface microflora of fresh-cut cantaloupes - (Abstract Only)
Ukuku, D.O., Olanya, O.M., Geveke, D.J., Sommers, C.H. 2012. Effect of storage temperature on the survival and growth of Listeria monocyotogenes populations in the presence of indigenous surface microflora of fresh-cut cantaloupes [abstract]. International Association for Food Protection Annual Meeting., July 20-25, 2012, Providence, Rhode Island. 1:1.
Influence of mycorrhizal fungi (glomus intraradices) on survival of Salmonella and E.coli 0157:H7 in soil and translocation into romaine lettuce roots and shoot - (Abstract Only)
Gurtler, J., Nicholson, A., Douds, D.D., Niemira, B.A. 2012. Influence of mycorrhizal fungi (glomus intraradices) on survival of Salmonella and E.coli 0157:H7 in soil and translocation into romaine lettuce roots and shoot. Meeting Abstract. International Association of Food Protection Annual Meeting, Providence. Rhode Island., July 2012.
Inactivation of E.coli 0157:H7 in crop soil by amending with fast and slow pryolysis-generated biochars - (Abstract Only)
Gurtler, J., Boateng, A.A., Douds, D.D. 2012. Inactivation of E.coli 0157:H7 in crop soil by amending with fast and slow pryolysis-generated biochars. Meeting Abstract., IAFP Meeting, Providence, Rhode Island, July 22-25,2012.,Volume 1, Page 1.
Inactivation of E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on strawberries by sanitizing solutions - (Abstract Only)
Gurtler, J., Bailey, R., Jin, Z.T. 2012. Inactivation of E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on strawberries by sanitizing solutions [abstract]. IAFP Meeting, July 22-25, 2012, Providence, Rhode Island. 1:1.
Efficacy of modified antimicrobial treatments on microbial safety and overall acceptability of fresh-cut cantaloupe melons - (Abstract Only)
Accepted Publication (10-Feb-12)
Yersiniosis and food safety - (Other)
Md. Latiful, B., Ukuku, D.O., Isshiki, K., Ramesh, R.C., Didier, M. 2012. Yersiniosis and food safety. Journal of Pathogens. Volume 2012, Article 605037, Page 1.
Hydrogen peroxide - (Book / Chapter)
Ukuku, D.O., Md. Latiful, B., Kawamoto, S. 2012. Hydrogen peroxide. In: Gomez-Lopez, V.M., editor. Decontamination of Fresh and Minimally Processed Produce. First Edition. Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 197-214.
Pulsed electric field (PEF)research at USDA, ARS, ERRC - (Other)
Sampedro, F., Fan, X., Gurtler, J., Geveke, D.J., Zhang, H.Q. 2011. Pulsed electric field (PEF)research at USDA, ARS, ERRC. Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) Nonthermal Processing Divison. 13:1.
Food Safety Categories:Food and Feed Handling and Processing
Sanitation and Pathogen Control
Government Policy and Regulations
Farm-to-Table categories:Food processing
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