Food Safety Research Information Office
Title:Genetics and Genetic Improvement of Disease Resistance and Quality Traits in Watermelon, Broccoli, and Leafy Green Brassicas
Objective:
  • Determine the genetic control of resistance to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and Fusarium wilt (Fon race 2) in watermelon, identify and map DNA-based markers closely linked to identified resistance loci, and release resistant watermelon lines.
  • Utilize genomic tools to develop genetic linkage maps for watermelon and diagnostic DNA-based markers for host-plant resistance to viruses and key watermelon fruit traits.
  • Develop inbred broccoli lines with tolerance to high temperature stress and elucidate the underlying genetic control of the tolerance.
  • Breed high yielding, self-compatible inbred broccoli lines with high productivity and high levels of health-promoting compounds.
  • Elucidate the genetic control of bacterial leaf spot resistance in leafy green Brassicas (B. juncea and B. rapa) and release resistant breeding lines resulting from the research.
More Info:
APPROACH: Select parental lines of watermelon, broccoli, or leafy green brasscias based on phenotypic expression of resistance, tolerance, or quality traits under study. Use the selected parents to construct conventional (i.e., F2, BC1, recombinant inbred) and doubled haploid (for broccoli only) populations that segregate for the traits of interest, and then employ those populations in studies to determine mode of inheritance of each character. Utilize PCR-based markers and other genomic technologies to identify sequences linked to the studied characters and to locate controlling genes on linkage maps. Use particular markers (i.e., SSR, SRAP, SNPs, or SCARs) closely associated with traits of interest to develop tools for marker-assisted selection. Based on knowledge gained through above studies, devise breeding strategies, and applications of marker technologies to use in the further development of horticulturally enhanced lines or hybrids that express resistances and other traits of interest and that also produce high quality vegetables. Make enhanced lines available through public releases or commercial licensing. Continue ongoing searches for new resistances and tolerances among watermelon and vegetable Brassica accessions for the U.S. PI and other collections.
Funding Source:United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
Type:USDA Inhouse
Start Date:2008
End Date:2013
Project Number:6659-21000-017-00D
Accession Number:0413305
Institutions:USDA/ARS - South Atlantic Area
Investigators:Farnham, Mark
Published Journal
Articles USDA
ARS (NP 108):
Cytomolecular characterization of rDNA distribution in various Citrullus species using fluorescent in situ hybridization
Reddy UK, Aryal N, Islam-Faridi N, Tomason YR, Levi A, Nimmakayala P.
Genet Resour Crop Ev. 2013 Oct;60(7):2091-100.
‘CaroTex-312’, a high-yielding, orange-fruited, habanero-type, F1 hybrid pepper
Crosby KM, Fery RL, Leskovar DI, Butcher J.
HortScience. 2013 Aug;48(8):1059-61.
Map-based molecular diversity, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of fruit traits in melon
Tomason Y, Nimmakayala P, Levi A, Reddy UK.
Mol Breed. 2013 Apr;31(4):829-41.
Dynamic regulation of novel and conserved miRNAs across various tissues of diverse cucurbit species
Manohar S, Jagadeeswaran G, Nimmakayala P, Tomason Y, Almeida A, Sunkar R, Levi A, Reddy UK.
Plant Mol Biol Rep. 2013 Apr;31(2):335-43.
High frequency oligonucleotides: targeting active gene (HFO-TAG) markers revealed wide genetic diversity among Citrullus spp. accessions useful for enhancing disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars
Levi A, Thies JA, Wechter WP, Harrison HF, Simmons AM, Reddy UK, Nimmakayala P, Fei Z.
Genet Resour Crop Ev. 2013 Feb;60(2):427-40.
The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions
Guo S, Zhang J, Sun H, Salse J, Lucas WJ, Zhang H, Zheng Y, Mao L, Ren Y, Wang Z, Min J, Guo X, Murat F, Ham BK, Zhang Z, Gao S, Huang M, Xu Y, Zhong S, Bombarely A, Mueller LA, Zhao H, He H, Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Huang S, Tan T, Pang E, Lin K, Hu Q, Kuang H, Ni P, Wang B, Liu J, Kou Q, Hou W, Zou X, Jiang J, Gong G, Klee K, Schoof H, Huang Y, Hu X, Dong S, Liang D, Wang J, Wu K, Xia Y, Zhao X, Zheng Z, Xing M, Liang X, Huang B, Lv T, Wang J, Yin Y, Yi H, Li R, Wu M, Levi A, Zhang X, Giovannoni JJ, Wang J, Li Y, Fei Z, Xu Y.
Nat Genet. 2013 Jan;45(1):51-8.
Collard, mustard and turnip greens: Effects of genotypes and leaf position on concentrations of ascorbic acid, folate, β-carotene, lutein and phylloquinone
Farnham MW, Lester GE, Hassell R.
J Food Comp Anal. 2012 Aug;27(12):1-7.
Impact of Thermal Processing on Sulforaphane Yield from Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica)
Wang GC, Farnham M, Jeffery EH.
J Agric Food Chem. 2012 May;60(27):6743-8.
A high resolution genetic map anchoring scaffolds of the sequenced watermelon genome
Ren Y, Zhao H, Kou Q, Jiang J, Guo S, Zhang H, Hou W, Zou X, Sun H, Gong G, Levi A, Xu Y.
PLoS One. 2012;7(1):.
Mineral concentration of broccoli florets in relation to year of cultivar release
Farnham MW, Keinath AP, Grusak MA.
Crop Sci. 2011 Nov;51(6):2721-7.
Breeding vegetables adapted to high temperatures: A case study with broccoli
Farnham MW, Bjorkman T.
HortScience. 2011 Aug;46(8):1093-7.
USVL-220, a novel watermelon breeding line
Levi A, Thies JA, Simmons AM, Harrison H, Hassell R, Keinath A.
HortScience. 2011 Jan;46(1):135-8.
An extended genetic linkage map for watermelon based on a Testcross and a BC2F2 Population
Levi1 A, Wechter P, Massey L, Carter, DHopkins.
Am J Plant Sci. 2011;(2):92-110.
Evaluation of experimental broccoli hybrids developed for summer production in the Eastern United States
Farnham MW, Bjorkman T.
HortScience. 2011;46(6):858-63.
DNA markers and pollen morphology reveal that Praecitrullus fistulosus is more closely related to Benincasa hispida than to Citrullus spp
Levi A, Harris KR, Wechter WP, Kousik, Thies JA.
Genet Resour Crop Ev. 2010 Dec;57(8):1191-205.
Glossy and nonglossy near-isogenic lines USVL115-GL, USVL115-NG, USVL188-GL, and USVL188-NG of broccoli
Farnham MW.
HortScience. 2010 Apr;45(4):660-2.
Genetic reticulation and interrelationships among citrullus species as revealed by joint analysis of shared AFLPs and species-specific SSR alleles
Nimmakayala P, Tomason YR, Jeong J, Ponniah SK, Karunathilake A, Levi A, Perumal R, Reddy UK.
Plant Genet Resour. 2010 Apr;4(1):16-25.
High-frequency oligonucleotides in watermelon expressed sequenced tag-unigenes are useful in producing polymorphic polymerase chain reaction markers among watermelon genotypes
Levi1 A, Wechter WP, RHarris K, Davis AR, Fei Z.
J Amer Soc Hort Sci. 2010;135(4):369-78.
Full text available in the NAL Digital Collections.
Development of public immortal mapping populations, molecular markers and linkage maps for rapid cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea
Iniguez-Luy FL, Lukens L, Farnham MW, Amasino RM, Osborn TC.
Theor Appl Genet. 2009 Dec;120(1):31-43.
Genetic diversity among Lagenaria siceraria accessions containing resistance to root-knot nematodes, whiteflies, ZYMV or powdery mildew
Levi A, Thies J, Ling K, Simmons AM, Kousik C, Hassell R.
Plant Genet Resour. 2009 Dec;7(3):216-26.
Isolation, sequence analysis, and linkage mapping of nucleotide binding site–Leucine-rich repeat disease resistance gene analogs in watermelon
Harris KR, Wechter WP, Levi A.
J Am Soc Hort Sci. 2009 Nov;134(6):649-57.
Identification and utility of markers linked to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance gene in watermelon
Harris KR, Ling K, Wechter WP, Levi A.
J Am Soc Hort Sci. 2009 Sep;134(5):529-34.
Importance of genotype on carotenoid and chlorophyll levels in broccoli heads
Farnham MW, Kopsell DA.
HortScience. 2009 Aug;44(5):1248-53.
Molecular diversity in the Ukrainian melon collection as revealed by AFLPs and microsatellites
Nimmakayala P, Tomason YR, Jeong J, Vajja G, Levi A, Gibson P, Reddy UK.
Plant Genet Resourc. 2009 Aug;7(2):127-34.
Non-journal publications:
What makes those collard, turnip and mustard greens so good for you? - (Proceedings)
Farnham, M.W. 2012. What makes those collard, turnip and mustard greens so good for you? North Carolina Vegetable Growers Association 2012 Yearbook. p. 53.
A transdisciplinary approach to developing an eastern broccoli industry- (Abstract Only)
Bjorkman, T., Davis, J.M., Farnham, M.W., Gomez, G., Griffiths, P.D., Hutton, M., Kopsell, D.A., Myers, J.R., Sams, C.E., Smith, J. 2012. A transdisciplinary approach to developing an eastern broccoli industry. HortScience. 47(9):S408-S409.
Glucosinolate variation among six cultigens of broccoli grown in five diverse east coast locations - (Abstract Only)
Sams, C.E., Kopsell, D.A., Farnham, M.W., Griffiths, P.D., Hutton, M., Davis, J.M., Morris, W. 2012. Glucosinolate variation among six cultigens of broccoli grown in five diverse east coast locations. HortScience. 47(9):S358.
Broccoli pigment profile of six cultigens grown in five east coast locations - (Abstract Only)
Kopsell, D.A., Sams, C.E., Farnham, M.W., Griffiths, P.D., Hutton, M., Davis, J.M., Morris, W. 2012. Broccoli pigment profile of six cultigens grown in five east coast locations. HortScience. 47(9):358-359.
Performance of current broccoli varieties under eastern U.S. conditions- (Abstract Only)
Griffiths, P.D., Farnham, M.W., Hutton, M., Davis, J.M., Morris, W., Bjorkman, T. 2012. Performance of current broccoli varieties under eastern U.S. conditions. HortScience. 47(9):S274.
Exploiting genetic diversity in Citrullus spp. to enhance watermelon cultivars - (Proceedings)
Levi, A., Thies, J.A., Wechter, W.P., Kousik, C.S., Ling, K., Harrison Jr, H.F., Simmons, A.M., Reddy, U.K., Nimmakayala, P., Fei, Z. 2012. Exploiting genetic diversity in Citrullus spp. to enhance watermelon cultivars. Acta Horticulturae. Pp. 41-48.
Identification of SNP Haplotypes and Prospects of Association Mapping in Watermelon - (Abstract Only)
Accepted Publication (25-Dec-11)
Genetic Diversity among Watermelon Citrullus spp. Accessions Based on HFO-TAG Markers - (Abstract Only)
Accepted Publication (24-Dec-11)
How do High Temperatures Limit Broccoli Production: Is It Possible for this Cole Crop to Take the Heat? - (Abstract Only)
Farnham, M.W. 2011. How do High Temperatures Limit Broccoli Production: Is It Possible for this Cole Crop to Take the Heat?. Southeast Regional Fruit and Vegetable Conference. p. 51.
Breeding broccoli adapted to high temperature environments - (Abstract Only)
Farnham, M.W., Bjorkman, T. 2012. Breeding broccoli adapted to high temperature environments. Plant Physiology. P09015.
Field evaluation of brassica lines for resistance to bacterial blight in Charleston, South Carolina, 2010 - (Research Notes)
Keinath, A.P., Farnham, M.W., Wechter, W.P. 2011. Field evaluation of brassica lines for resistance to bacterial blight in Charleston, South Carolina, 2010. Plant Disease Management Reports. 5:V082.
Sequencing the Genome of the Heirloom Watermelon Cultivar Charleston Gray - (Abstract Only)
Levi, A., Hernandez, A., Thimmapuram, J., Donthu, R., Wright, C., Ali, C., Wechter, W.P., Reddy, U., Mikel, M. 2011. Sequencing the Genome of the Heirloom Watermelon Cultivar Charleston Gray. Plant and Animal Genome Conference. P047.
Genetic mapping of Chromosomal Segments introgressed in Cultivated Watermelon Genome - (Proceedings)
Levi, A., Wechter, W.P., Ling, K., Thies, J.A., Hopkins, D. 2010. Genetic mapping of Chromosomal Segments introgressed in Cultivated Watermelon Genome. Cucurbitaceae Proceedings. p. 50-54.
Employing Phylogenetic and Population Structure Analyses to Identify Potential Rootstock Resources for Grafted Watermelon - (Proceedings)
Levi, A., Thies, J.A., Wechter, W.P., Kousik, C.S., Hassell, R., Reddy, U. 2010. Employing Phylogenetic and Population Structure Analyses to Identify Potential Rootstock Resources for Grafted Watermelon. Cucurbitaceae Proceedings. p. 55-58.
Watermelon in: Genetics, genomics and breeding of cucurbits - (Book / Chapter)
Levi, A., Wechter, W.P., Thies, J.A., Ling, K., Reddy, U.K., Xu, Y., Guo, S., Zhang, X. 2012. Watermelon In Wang, Y, H., Dehdra, T. K., and Kole, C. (eds) Genetics, genomics and breeding of cucurbits. 1st edition. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis Group, New York, NY. Pp. 309-334.
A Glance at Microsatellite Motifs from 454 Sequencing Reads of Watermelon Genomic DNA - (Proceedings)
Nimmakayala, P., Levi, A., Ponniah, S., Tomason, Y., Nepal, N., Wechter, W.P., Reddy, U. 2010. A Glance at Microsatellite Motifs from 454 Sequencing Reads of Watermelon Genomic DNA. Cucurbitaceae Proceedings. p. 91-94. Thies, J.A., Kousik, C., and Levi, A. (Eds).
The Genetics of Brassica oleracea - (Book / Chapter)
Quiros, C.F., Farnham, M.W. 2011. The Genetics of Brassica oleracea. In: Schmidt, R., Bancroft, I., editors. Genetics and Genomics of the Brassicaceae. New York, NY:Springer. p. 261-290.
Breeding Vegetables Adapted to High Temperatures: A Case Study with Broccoli - (Abstract Only)
Farnham, M.W. 2010. Breeding Vegetables Adapted to High Temperatures: A Case Study with Broccoli. HortScience. 45:S18 (Abstr.)
Mineral Concentration of Broccoli Heads in relation to Year of Cultivar Release - (Abstract Only)
Farnham, M.W., Grusak, M.A. 2010. Mineral Concentration of Broccoli Heads in relation to Year of Cultivar Release. HortScience. 45:S282-S283 (Abstr.)
Phylogenetic Relationships Among Cucurbit Species Used as Rootstocks for Grafting Watermelon - (Abstract Only)
Levi, A., Thies, J.A., Ling, K., Simmons, A.M., Kousik, C.S., Wechter, W.P., Hassell, R. 2010. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Cucurbit Species Used as Rootstocks for Grafting Watermelon. HortScience. 45:509.
Notice of Release of USVL-230, A Novel Watermelon Breeding Line - (Germplasm Release)
Levi, A. 2009. Notice of Release of USVL-230, A Novel Watermelon Breeding Line. USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Cultivar Release. 10 November 2009.
Oligonucleotides that Exist in High Frequency in EST-unigenes are Useful in Producing Polymorphism among Watermelon Genotypes - (Abstract Only)
Levi, A., Wechter, W.P., Harris, K.R., Davis, A.R., Fei, Z. 2010. Oligonucleotides that Exist in High Frequency in EST-unigenes are Useful in Producing Polymorphism among Watermelon Genotypes. Plant and Animal Genome Conference. January 9-13, 2010, P-204.
Notice of Release of Glossy and Nonglossy Near Isogenic Green Sprouting Broccoli Inbred Lines USVL115-GL AND USVL115-NG, and also USVL188-GL and USVL188-NG - (Germplasm Release)
Accepted Publication (18-Sep-09)
Genotype and Environment Effects on Carotenoid Content of Broccoli - (Abstract Only)
Farnham, M.W., Kopsell, D.A. 2009. Genotype and Environment Effects on Carotenoid Content of Broccoli. HortScience. 44:1017-1018.
Markers Linked to the ZYMV-FL Resistance Gene and Their Use in Marker-assisted Selection in Watermelon - (Abstract Only)
Harris-Shultz, K.R., Ling, K., Meyer, J.D., Levi, A., Wechter, W.P., Havey, M.J., Guner, N., Wehner, T. 2009. Markers Linked to the ZYMV-FL Resistance Gene and Their Use in Marker-assisted Selection in Watermelon. HortScience. 44:576.
Exploring the Coastal Plain of the Carolinas in Search of Heirloom Collard - (Abstract Only)
Farnham, M.W. 2008. Exploring the Coastal Plain of the Carolinas in Search of Heirloom Collard. Vegetable Association Yearbook (North Carolina Vegetable Growers Association). p42.
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