Food Safety Research Information Office
Title:Enhancing Pathogen Detection and Crop Protection in Sugarbeet using Molecular Technologies
Objective:Three of the most significant field diseases of sugarbeet in the U.S. are root rot, caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides; Rhizomania, caused by a fungal/viral complex; and wilt, caused by the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and concomitant infection by Fusarium fungi. The objectives of this project are to investigate methods to reproduce the field diseases of these pathogens in controlled environments, to develop qualitative and quantitative detection reagents and protocols for these organisms, and to determine genetic changes in viruses of the Rhizomania complex that condition heightened virulence to sugarbeet. Since the incorporation of natural genetic resistance into crops remains the most cost-effective strategy for disease control, an additional objective of the project is to obtain molecular genetic tags for disease resistance genes in sugarbeet in collaborative studies with ARS sugarbeet geneticists and pathologists.
More Info:
APPROACH: Gradients of saturation across seedbeds will be tested as a means to evaluate sugarbeet varieties with known resistance to Aphanomyces cochlioides using stand loss as a measure of disease severity. Protocols for the inoculation of sugarbeet with Polymyxa betae will be modified to select for clonal isolates of the organism, an aspect lacking in past studies on this pathogen. Probe primers will be designed to perform in conjunction with specific primer sets in the development of real-time PCR (qPCR) methods for quantifying these pathogens in soil and plant samples. Disruptions (insertions) in the chromosomes of beet black scorch virus and beet necrotic yellow vein virus will be engineered in efforts to determine the role of virus genes in pathogen virulence. Plants typed for either resistance or susceptibility to the sugarbeet cyst nematode and Fusarium stalk blight will be subjected to DNA fingerprinting for generation of molecular markers linked to resistance genes.
Funding Source:United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
Type:USDA Inhouse
Start Date:2007
End Date:2012
Project Number:5442-22000-042-00D
Accession Number:0411728
Institutions:USDA/ARS - Northern Plains Area
Investigators:Bolton, Melvin
Published Journal
Articles USDA
ARS (NP 108):
Identification of the G143A mutation associated with QoI resistance in Cercospora beticola field isolates from Michigan, United States
Bolton MD, Rivera V, Secor G.
Pest Manag Sci. 2013 Jan;69(1):35-9.
Efficacy of variable tetraconazole rates against Cercospora beticola isolates with differing in vitro sensitivities to DMI fungicides
Bolton MD, Rivera-Varas V, Del Rio Mendoza LE, Khan MFR, Secor GA.
Plant Disease. 2012 Dec;96(12):1749-56.
Characterization of cytochrome b from European field isolates of Cercospora beticola with quinone outside inhibitor resistance
Birla K, Rivera-Varas V, Secor G, Khan M, Bolton M.
Eur J Plant Pathol. 2012 Nov;134(3):475-488.
First confirmed report of sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, in North Dakota
Nelson BD, Bolton MD, Lopez-Nicora HD, Niblack TL, del Rio Mendoza L.
Plant Disease. 2012 May;96(5):772.
Evaluation of the potential for sexual reproduction in field populations of Cercospora beticola from USA
Bolton MD, Secor GA, Rivera V, Weiland JJ, Rudolph K, Birla K, Rengifo J, Campbell LG.
Fungal Biol. 2012 Apr;116(4):511-21.
First report of root rot of Chicory caused by Phytophthora cryptogea in Chile
Vargas M, Loyola C, Zapata N, Rivera V, Secor G, Bolton M, France A.
Plant Disease. 2012 Apr;96(4):591.
Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing
de Jonge R, van Esse HP, Maruthachalam K, Bolton MD, Santhanam P, Saber MK, Zhang Z, Usami T, Lievens B, Subbarao KV, Thomma BP.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012 Mar 27;109(13):5110-5.
Characterization of CbCyp51 from field isolates of Cercospora beticola
Bolton MD, Birla K, Rivera-Varas V, Rudolph KD, Secor GA.
Phytopathology. 2012 Mar;102 (3):298-305.
How filamentous pathogens co-opt plants: the ins and outs of fungal effectors
de Jonge R, Bolton MD, Thomma BP.
Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011 Aug;14(4):400-6.
Temperature, moisture, and fungicide effects in managing Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of sugar beet
Bolton MD, Panella L, Campbell L, Khan MF.
Phytopathology. 2010 Jul;100(7):689-97.
Transformation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum with the green fluorescent protein gene and fluorescence of hyphae in four inoculated hosts
De Silva AP, Bolton MD, Nelson BD.
Plant Pathol. 2009 Jun;58(3):487-96.
Primary Metabolism and Plant Defense - Fuel for the Fire
Bolton MD.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2009 May;22(5):487-97.
Rhizomania resistance in the Tandem sugar beet variety
Detemmerman N, Anfinrud M, Meulemans M, Rick K, Burkholz A, Debruyne E, Weyens G, Barnes S, Horemans S, Lerebvre M, Bolton M.
International Sugar Journal. 2009 May;111(1325):313-7.
Full text available in the NAL Digital Collections.
The Cladosporium fulvum virulence protein Avr2 inhibits host proteases required for basal defense
van Esse HP, Van't Klooster JW, Bolton MD, Yadeta KA, van Baarlen P, Boeren S, Vervoort J, de Wit PJ, Thomma BP.
Plant Cell. 2008 Jul;20(7):1948-63.
The complexity of nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen-regulated gene expression in plant pathogenic fungi
Bolton M, Thomma B.
Physiol Mol Plant Pathol. 2008 Jul;72(4):104-10.
Non-journal publications:
Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols - (Book / Chapter)
Bolton, M.D., Thomma, B.P. 2012. Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols. New York, NY: Humana Press. p 648.
PCR-based detection of fungicide resistance in Cercospora beticola - (Proceedings)
Bolton, M.D., Secor, G., Khan, M.F. 2011. PCR-based detection of fungicide resistance in Cercospora beticola. 2010 Sugarbeet Research and Extension Reports. 41:229-230.
Available: http://www.sbreb.org/research/plant/plant10/BoltenPCRBasedCB2010.pdf
Impact of the soybean cyst nematode on seedling diseases of sugarbeet - (Proceedings)
Rudolph, K., Nelson, B., Bolton, M.D. 2011. Impact of the soybean cyst nematode on seedling diseases of sugarbeet. 2010 Sugarbeet Research and Extension Reports. 41:236-238. Available: http://www.sbreb.org/research/plant/plant10/RudolphSCNOnSeedlingDisease2010.pdf
Enhancing crop protection in sugarbeet using molecular technology - (Trade Journal)
Bolton, M.D. 2011. Enhancing crop protection in sugarbeet using molecular technology. Sugar Journal. 73(9):6-8.
Correlating reduction in fungicide sensitivity in C. beticola with loss of disease control - (Abstract Only)
Secor, G.A., Bolton, M.D., Rivera, V.V., Khan, F.R. 2011. Correlating reduction in fungicide sensitivity in C. beticola with loss of disease control [abstract.] Journal of Sugar Beet Research. 48:89-90.
Mechanism of DMI resistance in field isolates of Cercospora beticola - (Abstract Only)
Bolton, M.D., Secor, G.A., Rivera, V.V., Birla, K. 2011. Mechanism of DMI resistance in field isolates of Cercospora beticola [abstract.] Journal of Sugar Beet Research. 48:94.
Effect of fungicides on disease control, yield and quality of sugarbeet inoculated with different sources of Cercospora beticola inocula - (Abstract Only)
Khan, M.F., Carlson, A.L., Secor, G., Rivera, V.V., Bolton, M.D. 2011. Effect of fungicides on disease control, yield and quality of sugarbeet inoculated with different sources of Cercospora beticola inocula [abstract.] Journal of Sugar Beet Research. 48:85.
Construction of hairpin RNA expressing vectors for RNA-mediated gene silencing in fungi - (Book / Chapter)
Zhong, S., Leng, Y., Bolton, M.D. 2012. Construction of hairpin RNA expressing vectors for RNA-mediated gene silencing in fungi. In: Bolton, M.D., Thomma, B.P.H.J. editors. Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols. New York, NY: Humana Press. p. 623-633.
Management of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of sugarbeet - (Research Notes)
Khan, M.F., Bolton, M.D. 2010. Management of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of sugarbeet. North Dakota State University Extension Service Education Materials. PP-1495.
Available: http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/pests/pp1495.pdf
Timing and Methodology of Application of Azoxystrobin to Control Rhizoctonia Solani in Sugarbeet - (Abstract Only)
Pooran-Desouza, S., Bolton, M.D., Khan, M.F. 2010. Timing and methodology of application of Azoxystrobin to control Rhizoctonia solani in sugarbeet [abstract]. 2010 American Phytopathological Society Abstracts. 100:S102. Available: http://www.apsnet.org/meetings/Documents/2010_Meeting_Abstracts/a10ma601.htm
Soybean Cyst Nematode Infects Roots of Sugar Beet - (Abstract Only)
Rudolph, K.D., Bolton, M.D., Nelson, B.D. 2010. Soybean cyst nematode infects roots of sugar beet [abstract]. 2010 American Phytopathological Society Abstracts. 100:S111. Available: http://www.apsnet.org/meetings/Documents/2010_Meeting_Abstracts/a10ma657.htm
Depth at which Rhizoctonia solani causes infection of sugar beet - (Abstract Only)
Desouza, S., Bolton, M.D., Khan, M.F. 2010. Depth at which Rhizoctonia solani causes infection of sugar beet [abstract.] American Physical Society North Central Division. p. 20.
Impact of the Soybean Cyst Nematode on Seedling Diseases of Sugarbeet - (Proceedings)
Rudoplh, K.D., Nelson, B.D., Bolton, M.D. 2010. Impact of the Soybean Cyst Nematode on Seedling Diseases of Sugarbeet. 2009 Sugarbeet Research and Extension Reports, Plant Pathology.
Available: http://www.sbreb.org/research/plant/plant09/plant09.htm
Analysis of Cercospora Beticola Mating Type Gene Structure in North Central USA - (Abstract Only)
Bolton, M.D., Secor, G., Campbell, L.G., Rivera, V., Rengifo, J., Weiland, J.J. 2009. Analysis of Cercospora Beticola Mating Type Gene Structure in North Central USA [abstract.] Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions XIV Abstracts.
Available: http://www.ismpminet.org/meetings/abstracts/2009/p09ma64.asp
Management of Rhizoctonia Root Rot of Sugarbeet - Fungicide Efficacy and Identification of Environmental Parameters for Disease Development - (Abstract Only)
Bolton, M.D., Khan, M.F. 2009. Management of Rhizoctonia Root Rot of Sugarbeet - Fungicide Efficacy and Identification of Environmental Parameters for Disease Development [abstract]. Phytopathology. 99(6)(Supplement):S14.
Secreted effectors of the tomato leaf mould fungus Cladosporium fulvum are virulence factors that target host defense - (Abstract Only)
Van Esse, P., De Jonge, R., Bolton, M.D., Thomma, B. 2009. Secreted Effectors of the Tomato Leaf Mould Fungus Cladosporium Fulvum are Virulence Factors that Target Host Defense [abstract.] 25th Fungal Genetics Conference, March 17-22, 2009, Asilomar, CA. p. 527.
Available: http://www.fgsc.net/25thFGC/25thFGCabstracts.pdf
The effect of temperature on Rhizoctonia disease development and fungicide efficacy in controlling Rhizoctonia root rot on sugarbeet - (Abstract Only)
Khan, M.F., Qandah, I., Bolton, M.D. 2009. The Effect of Temperature on Rhizoctonia Disease Development and Fungicide Efficacy in Controlling Rhizoctonia Root Rot on Sugarbeet [abstract]. Journal of Sugarbeet Research. 46(1&2):101-102.
Rhizomania resistance in the Tandem sugar beet variety - (Abstract Only)
Detemmerman, N., Anfinrud, M., Meulemans, M., Burkholz, A., Debruyne, E., Weyens, G., Barnes, S., Horemans, S., Lefebvre, M., Bolton, M.D. 2009. Rhizomania Resistance in the TandemĀ® Sugar Beet Variety [abstract]. Journal of Sugarbeet Research. 46(1&2):99.
The effect of temperature on Rhizoctonia disease development and fungicide efficacy in controlling Rhizoctonia root rot on sugarbeet - (Proceedings)
Khan, M.F., Quandah, I., Bolton, M.D. 2009. The Effect of Temperature on Rhizoctonia Disease Development and Fungicide Efficacy in Controlling Rhizoctonia Root Rot on Sugarbeet. 2008 Sugarbeet Research and Extension Reports. 39:252-254.
Available: http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/catalog/34131
The role of cercosporin in the virulence of Cercospora ssp. to plant hosts - (Book / Chapter)
Weiland, J.J., Chung, K., Suttle, J.C. 2010. The Role of Cercosporin in the Virulence of Cercospora ssp. to Plant Hosts. In Lartey, R.T., Weiland, J.J., Panella, L., Crous, P.W., Windels, C.E., editors. Cercospora Leaf Spot of Sugar Beet and Related Species. St. Paul, MN: The American Phytopathological Society. p. 109-117.
Food Safety Categories:Methodology
Pathogen Biology
Plant Science & Plant Products
Farm-to-Table categories:On-farm food production
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